PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 202,020)

Bioprospecting Finds the Toughest Biological Material: Extraordinary Silk from a Giant Riverine Orb Spider

Background Combining high strength and elasticity, spider silks are exceptionally tough, i.e., able to absorb massive kinetic energy before breaking. Spider silk is therefore a model polymer for development of high performance biomimetic fibers. There are over 41.000 described species of spiders, most spinning multiple types of silk. Thus we have available some 200.000+ unique...

Development of Mathematical Models for the Analysis of Hepatitis Delta Virus Viral Dynamics

Background Mathematical models have shown to be extremely helpful in understanding the dynamics of different virus diseases, including hepatitis B. Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a satellite virus of the hepatitis B virus (HBV). In the liver, production of new HDV virions depends on the presence of HBV. There are two ways in which HDV can occur in an individual: co-infection and...

Differences in Muscle and Adipose Tissue Gene Expression and Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors in the Members of Physical Activity Discordant Twin Pairs

High physical activity/aerobic fitness predicts low morbidity and mortality. Our aim was to identify the most up-regulated gene sets related to long-term physical activity vs. inactivity in skeletal muscle and adipose tissues and to obtain further information about their link with cardio-metabolic risk factors. We studied ten same-sex twin pairs (age range 50–74 years) who had...

Event-Related Potentials Dissociate Effects of Salience and Space in Biased Competition for Visual Representation

Background Selective visual attention is the process by which the visual system enhances behaviorally relevant stimuli and filters out others. Visual attention is thought to operate through a cortical mechanism known as biased competition. Representations of stimuli within cortical visual areas compete such that they mutually suppress each others' neural response. Competition...

Targeted p120-Catenin Ablation Disrupts Dental Enamel Development

Dental enamel development occurs in stages. The ameloblast cell layer is adjacent to, and is responsible for, enamel formation. When rodent pre-ameloblasts become tall columnar secretory-stage ameloblasts, they secrete enamel matrix proteins, and the ameloblasts start moving in rows that slide by one another. This movement is necessary to form the characteristic decussating...

Molecular Modeling-Based Evaluation of hTLR10 and Identification of Potential Ligands in Toll-Like Receptor Signaling

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors that recognize pathogens based on distinct molecular signatures. The human (h)TLR1, 2, 6 and 10 belong to the hTLR1 subfamilies, which are localized in the extracellular regions and activated in response to diverse ligand molecules. Due to the unavailability of the hTLR10 crystal structure, the understanding of its homo...

Loss of c-Met Disrupts Gene Expression Program Required for G2/M Progression during Liver Regeneration in Mice

Background Previous work has established that HGF/c-Met signaling plays a pivotal role in regulating the onset of S phase following partial hepatectomy (PH). In this study, we used Metfl/fl;Alb-Cre+/− conditional knockout mice to determine the effects of c-Met dysfunction in hepatocytes on kinetics of liver regeneration. Methodology/Principal Finding The priming events appeared...

Functional Variant in Complement C3 Gene Promoter and Genetic Susceptibility to Temporal Lobe Epilepsy and Febrile Seizures

Background Human mesial temporal lobe epilepsies (MTLE) represent the most frequent form of partial epilepsies and are frequently preceded by febrile seizures (FS) in infancy and early childhood. Genetic associations of several complement genes including its central component C3 with disorders of the central nervous system, and the existence of C3 dysregulation in the epilepsies...

Cost-Effectiveness of HIV Testing Referral Strategies among Tuberculosis Patients in India

Background Indian guidelines recommend routine referral for HIV testing of all tuberculosis (TB) patients in the nine states with the highest HIV prevalence, and selective referral for testing elsewhere. We assessed the clinical impact and cost-effectiveness of alternative HIV testing referral strategies among TB patients in India. Methods and Findings We utilized a computer...

Phenotypic Plasticity in Response to the Social Environment: Effects of Density and Sex Ratio on Mating Behaviour Following Ecotype Divergence

The ability to express phenotypically plastic responses to environmental cues might be adaptive in changing environments. We studied phenotypic plasticity in mating behaviour as a response to population density and adult sex ratio in a freshwater isopod (Asellus aquaticus). A. aquaticus has recently diverged into two distinct ecotypes, inhabiting different lake habitats (reed...

A Molecular Genetic Timescale for the Diversification of Autotrophic Stramenopiles (Ochrophyta): Substantive Underestimation of Putative Fossil Ages

Background Stramenopiles constitute a large and diverse eukaryotic clade that is currently poorly characterized from both phylogenetic and temporal perspectives at deeper taxonomic levels. To better understand this group, and in particular the photosynthetic stramenopiles (Ochrophyta), we analyzed sequence data from 135 taxa representing most major lineages. Our analytical...

Development of a New Tacaribe Arenavirus Infection Model and Its Use to Explore Antiviral Activity of a Novel Aristeromycin Analog

Background A growing number of arenaviruses can cause a devastating viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) syndrome. They pose a public health threat as emerging viruses and because of their potential use as bioterror agents. All of the highly pathogenic New World arenaviruses (NWA) phylogenetically segregate into clade B and require maximum biosafety containment facilities for their...

A Rapid, Strong, and Convergent Genetic Response to Urban Habitat Fragmentation in Four Divergent and Widespread Vertebrates

Background Urbanization is a major cause of habitat fragmentation worldwide. Ecological and conservation theory predicts many potential impacts of habitat fragmentation on natural populations, including genetic impacts. Habitat fragmentation by urbanization causes populations of animals and plants to be isolated in patches of suitable habitat that are surrounded by non-native...

Deletion of Running-Induced Hippocampal Neurogenesis by Irradiation Prevents Development of an Anxious Phenotype in Mice

Recent evidence postulates a role of hippocampal neurogenesis in anxiety behavior. Here we report that elevated levels of neurogenesis elicit increased anxiety in rodents. Mice performing voluntary wheel running displayed both highly elevated levels of neurogenesis and increased anxiety in three different anxiety-like paradigms: the open field, elevated O-maze, and dark-light box...

Distinct Transcriptome Expression of the Temporal Cortex of the Primate Microcebus murinus during Brain Aging versus Alzheimer's Disease-Like Pathology

Aging is the primary risk factor of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the molecular events occurring during brain aging are extremely complex and still largely unknown. For a better understanding of these age-associated modifications, animal models as close as possible to humans are needed. We thus analyzed the transcriptome of the temporal...

Frequent MAGE Mutations in Human Melanoma

Background Cancer/testis (CT) genes are expressed only in the germ line and certain tumors and are most frequently located on the X-chromosome (the CT-X genes). Amongst the best studied CT-X genes are those encoding several MAGE protein families. The function of MAGE proteins is not well understood, but several have been shown to potentially influence the tumorigenic phenotype...

Timing of Immune Escape Linked to Success or Failure of Vaccination

Successful vaccination against HIV should limit viral replication sufficiently to prevent the emergence of viral immune escape mutations. Broadly directed immunity is likely to be required to limit opportunities for immune escape variants to flourish. We studied the emergence of an SIV Gag cytotoxic T cell immune escape variant in pigtail macaques expressing the Mane-A*10 MHC I...

A Molecular Score by Quantitative PCR as a New Prognostic Tool at Diagnosis for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Patients

Background Several markers have been proposed to predict the outcome of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients. However, discordances exist between the current prognostic factors, indicating that none of these factors are totally perfect. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we compared the prognostic power of new RNA-based markers in order to construct a quantitative PCR...

Crystal Structure of the RNA Recognition Motif of Yeast Translation Initiation Factor eIF3b Reveals Differences to Human eIF3b

Background The multi-subunit eukaryotic initiation factor3 (eIF3) plays a central role in the initiation step of protein synthesis in eukaryotes. One of its large subunits, eIF3b, serves as a scaffold within eIF3 as it interacts with several other subunits. It harbors an RNA Recognition Motif (RRM), which is shown to be a non-canonical RRM in human as it is not capable to...

Linear Control Theory for Gene Network Modeling

Systems biology is an interdisciplinary field that aims at understanding complex interactions in cells. Here we demonstrate that linear control theory can provide valuable insight and practical tools for the characterization of complex biological networks. We provide the foundation for such analyses through the study of several case studies including cascade and parallel forms...

PRNP Haplotype Associated with Classical BSE Incidence in European Holstein Cattle

Background Classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is an acquired prion disease of cattle. The bovine prion gene (PRNP) contains regions of both high and low linkage disequilibrium (LD) that appear to be conserved across Bos taurus populations. The region of high LD, which spans the promoter and part of intron 2, contains polymorphic loci that have been associated with...

A Boolean Approach to Linear Prediction for Signaling Network Modeling

The task of the DREAM4 (Dialogue for Reverse Engineering Assessments and Methods) “Predictive signaling network modeling” challenge was to develop a method that, from single-stimulus/inhibitor data, reconstructs a cause-effect network to be used to predict the protein activity level in multi-stimulus/inhibitor experimental conditions. The method presented in this paper, one of...

New Function for an Old Enzyme: NEP Deficient Mice Develop Late-Onset Obesity

Background According to the World Health Organization (WHO) there is a pandemic of obesity with approximately 300 million people being obese. Typically, human obesity has a polygenetic causation. Neutral endopeptidase (NEP), also known as neprilysin, is considered to be one of the key enzymes in the metabolism of many active peptide hormones. Methodology/Principal Findings An...

Stabilisation of β-Catenin Downstream of T Cell Receptor Signalling

Background The role of TCF/β-catenin signalling in T cell development is well established, but important roles in mature T cells have only recently come to light. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we have investigated the signalling pathways that are involved in the regulation of β-catenin in primary human T cells. We demonstrate that β-catenin expression is upregulated rapidly...

A Comparative Study of Fat Storage Quantitation in Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans Using Label and Label-Free Methods

The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been employed as a model organism to study human obesity due to the conservation of the pathways that regulate energy metabolism. To assay for fat storage in C. elegans, a number of fat-soluble dyes have been employed including BODIPY, Nile Red, Oil Red O, and Sudan Black. However, dye-labeled assays produce results that often do not...