PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 202,526)

An Ecological Approach to Prospective and Retrospective Timing of Long Durations: A Study Involving Gamers

To date, most studies comparing prospective and retrospective timing have failed to use long durations and tasks with a certain degree of ecological validity. The present study assessed the effect of the timing paradigm on playing video games in a “naturalistic environment” (gaming centers). In addition, as it involved gamers, it provided an opportunity to examine the effect of...

Limitations of Ab Initio Predictions of Peptide Binding to MHC Class II Molecules

Successful predictions of peptide MHC binding typically require a large set of binding data for the specific MHC molecule that is examined. Structure based prediction methods promise to circumvent this requirement by evaluating the physical contacts a peptide can make with an MHC molecule based on the highly conserved 3D structure of peptide:MHC complexes. While several such...

Cryptochrome Genes Are Highly Expressed in the Ovary of the African Clawed Frog, Xenopus tropicalis

Cryptochromes (CRYs) are flavoproteins sharing high homology with photolyases. Some of them have function(s) including transcription regulation in the circadian clock oscillation, blue-light photoreception for resetting the clock phase, and light-dependent magnetoreception. Vertebrates retain multiple sets of CRY or CRY-related genes, but their functions are yet unclear...

Estimates of Electronic Medical Records in U.S. Emergency Departments

Background Policymakers advocate universal electronic medical records (EMRs) and propose incentives for “meaningful use” of EMRs. Though emergency departments (EDs) are particularly sensitive to the benefits and unintended consequences of EMR adoption, surveillance has been limited. We analyze data from a nationally representative sample of US EDs to ascertain the adoption of...

Engineered Heart Tissue: A Novel Tool to Study the Ischemic Changes of the Heart In Vitro

Background Understanding the basic mechanisms and prevention of any disease pattern lies mainly on development of a successful experimental model. Recently, engineered heart tissue (EHT) has been demonstrated to be a useful tool in experimental transplantation. Here, we demonstrate a novel function for the spontaneously contracting EHT as an experimental model in studying the...

Novel HIV-1 Knockdown Targets Identified by an Enriched Kinases/Phosphatases shRNA Library Using a Long-Term Iterative Screen in Jurkat T-Cells

HIV-1 is a complex retrovirus that uses host machinery to promote its replication. Understanding cellular proteins involved in the multistep process of HIV-1 infection may result in the discovery of more adapted and effective therapeutic targets. Kinases and phosphatases are a druggable class of proteins critically involved in regulation of signal pathways of eukaryotic cells...

A Global Analysis of the Effectiveness of Marine Protected Areas in Preventing Coral Loss

Background A variety of human activities have led to the recent global decline of reef-building corals [1], [2]. The ecological, social, and economic value of coral reefs has made them an international conservation priority [2], [3]. The success of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in restoring fish populations [4] has led to optimism that they could also benefit corals by indirectly...

Recycling Energy to Restore Impaired Ankle Function during Human Walking

Background Humans normally dissipate significant energy during walking, largely at the transitions between steps. The ankle then acts to restore energy during push-off, which may be the reason that ankle impairment nearly always leads to poorer walking economy. The replacement of lost energy is necessary for steady gait, in which mechanical energy is constant on average, external...

Analysis of the Putative Remains of a European Patron Saint–St. Birgitta

Saint Birgitta (Saint Bridget of Sweden) lived between 1303 and 1373 and was designated one of Europe's six patron saints by the Pope in 1999. According to legend, the skulls of St. Birgitta and her daughter Katarina are maintained in a relic shrine in Vadstena abbey, mid Sweden. The origin of the two skulls was assessed first by analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to confirm a...

Gene Expression Prediction by Soft Integration and the Elastic Net—Best Performance of the DREAM3 Gene Expression Challenge

Background To predict gene expressions is an important endeavour within computational systems biology. It can both be a way to explore how drugs affect the system, as well as providing a framework for finding which genes are interrelated in a certain process. A practical problem, however, is how to assess and discriminate among the various algorithms which have been developed for...

The Impact of Vitamin D on Dendritic Cell Function in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Background Excessive activity of dendritic cells (DCs) is postulated as a central disease mechanism in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). Vitamin D is known to reduce responsiveness of healthy donor DCs to the stimulatory effects of Type I IFN. As vitamin D deficiency is reportedly common in SLE, we hypothesized that vitamin D might play a regulatory role in the IFN...

Cerebral and Peripheral Changes Occurring in Nitric Oxide (NO) Synthesis in a Rat Model of Sleeping Sickness: Identification of Brain iNOS Expressing Cells

Background The implication of nitric oxide (NO) in the development of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) using an animal model, was examined. The manner by which the trypanocidal activity of NO is impaired in the periphery and in the brain of rats infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei (T. b. brucei) was analyzed through: (i) the changes occurring in NO concentration in both...

In Situ Hybridization Analysis of the Expression of Futsch, Tau, and MESK2 Homologues in the Brain of the European Honeybee (Apis mellifera L.)

Background The importance of visual sense in Hymenopteran social behavior is suggested by the existence of a Hymenopteran insect-specific neural circuit related to visual processing and the fact that worker honeybee brain changes morphologically according to its foraging experience. To analyze molecular and neural bases that underlie the visual abilities of the honeybees, we used...

Alterations in Adenosine Metabolism and Signaling in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

Background Adenosine is generated in response to cellular stress and damage and is elevated in the lungs of patients with chronic lung disease. Adenosine signaling through its cell surface receptors serves as an amplifier of chronic lung disorders, suggesting adenosine-based therapeutics may be beneficial in the treatment of lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary...

Visualizing Interactions along the Escherichia coli Twin-Arginine Translocation Pathway Using Protein Fragment Complementation

The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway is well known for its ability to export fully folded substrate proteins out of the cytoplasm of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Studies of this mechanism in Escherichia coli have identified numerous transient protein-protein interactions that guide export-competent proteins through the Tat pathway. To visualize these...

Delayed Onset of Positive Feedback Activation of Rab5 by Rabex-5 and Rabaptin-5 in Endocytosis

Background Rabex-5 is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) that specifically activates Rab5, i.e., converting Rab5-GDP to Rab5-GTP, through two distinct pathways to promote endosome fusion and endocytosis. The direct pathway involves a pool of membrane-associated Rabex-5 that targets to the membrane via an early endosomal targeting (EET) domain. The indirect pathway, on the...

Explicit Logic Circuits Predict Local Properties of the Neocortex's Physiology and Anatomy

Background Two previous articles proposed an explicit model of how the brain processes information by its organization of synaptic connections. The family of logic circuits was shown to generate neural correlates of complex psychophysical phenomena in different sensory systems. Methodology/Principal Findings Here it is shown that the most cost-effective architectures for these...

Vacuolar ATPase Regulates Surfactant Secretion in Rat Alveolar Type II Cells by Modulating Lamellar Body Calcium

Lung surfactant reduces surface tension and maintains the stability of alveoli. How surfactant is released from alveolar epithelial type II cells is not fully understood. Vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) is the enzyme responsible for pumping H+ into lamellar bodies and is required for the processing of surfactant proteins and the packaging of surfactant lipids. However, its role in...

FoxM1, a Forkhead Transcription Factor Is a Master Cell Cycle Regulator for Mouse Mature T Cells but Not Double Positive Thymocytes

FoxM1 is a forkhead box transcription factor and a known master regulator required for different phases of the cell cycle. In cell lines, FoxM1 deficient cells exhibit delayed S phase entry, aneuploidy, polyploidy and can't complete mitosis. In vivo, FoxM1 is expressed mostly in proliferating cells but is surprisingly also found in non-proliferating CD4+CD8+ double positive...

Differential Recognition of P. falciparum VAR2CSA Domains by Naturally Acquired Antibodies in Pregnant Women from a Malaria Endemic Area

Background Plasmodium falciparum infected red blood cells (iRBC) express variant surface antigens (VSA) of which VAR2CSA is involved in placental sequestration and causes pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM). Primigravidae are most susceptible to PAM whereas antibodies associated with protection are often present at higher levels in multigravid women. However, HIV co-infection with...

Avian Magnetoreception: Elaborate Iron Mineral Containing Dendrites in the Upper Beak Seem to Be a Common Feature of Birds

The magnetic field sensors enabling birds to extract orientational information from the Earth's magnetic field have remained enigmatic. Our previously published results from homing pigeons have made us suggest that the iron containing sensory dendrites in the inner dermal lining of the upper beak are a candidate structure for such an avian magnetometer system. Here we show that...

Prolonged Graft Survival in Older Recipient Mice Is Determined by Impaired Effector T-Cell but Intact Regulatory T-Cell Responses

Elderly organ transplant recipients represent a fast growing segment of patients on the waiting list. We examined age-dependent CD4+ T-cell functions in a wild-type (WT) and a transgenic mouse transplant model and analyzed the suppressive function of old regulatory T-cells. We found that splenocytes of naïve old B6 mice contained significantly higher frequencies of T-cells with...

Molecular Characterisation of Trimethoprim Resistance in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae during a Two Year Intervention on Trimethoprim Use

Background Trimethoprim resistance is increasing in Enterobacteriaceae. In 2004-2006 an intervention on trimethoprim use was conducted in Kronoberg County, Sweden, resulting in 85% reduction in trimethoprim prescriptions. We investigated the distribution of dihydrofolate reductase (dfr)-genes and integrons in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae and the effect of the...

Modulation of Alpha-Synuclein Aggregation by Dopamine Analogs

The action of dopamine on the aggregation of the unstructured alpha-synuclein (α-syn) protein may be linked to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Dopamine and its oxidation derivatives may inhibit α-syn aggregation by non-covalent binding. Exploiting this fact, we applied an integrated computational and experimental approach to find alternative ligands that might modulate...

The Smallest Known Genomes of Multicellular and Toxic Cyanobacteria: Comparison, Minimal Gene Sets for Linked Traits and the Evolutionary Implications

Cyanobacterial morphology is diverse, ranging from unicellular spheres or rods to multicellular structures such as colonies and filaments. Multicellular species represent an evolutionary strategy to differentiate and compartmentalize certain metabolic functions for reproduction and nitrogen (N2) fixation into specialized cell types (e.g. akinetes, heterocysts and diazocytes...