PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 204,218)

Characterization of the Temperature-Sensitive Mutations un-7 and png-1 in Neurospora crassa

The model filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa has been studied for over fifty years and many temperature-sensitive mutants have been generated. While most of these have been mapped genetically, many remain anonymous. The mutation in the N. crassa temperature-sensitive lethal mutant un-7 was identified by a complementation based approach as being in the open reading frame...

CCTα and CCTδ Chaperonin Subunits Are Essential and Required for Cilia Assembly and Maintenance in Tetrahymena

Background The eukaryotic cytosolic chaperonin CCT is a hetero-oligomeric complex formed by two rings connected back-to-back, each composed of eight distinct subunits (CCTα to CCTζ). CCT complex mediates the folding, of a wide range of newly synthesised proteins including tubulin (α, β and γ) and actin, as quantitatively major substrates. Methodology/Principal Findings We...

HPV Infection and EGFR Activation/Alteration in HIV-Infected East African Patients with Conjunctival Carcinoma

Background There has been substantial growth in the numbers of patients with conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma infected with HIV in East Africa. The natural history of the conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma appears to be unique in this region of the world, but the etiologic mechanism unclear and therapeutic options limited. This research was carried out to determine if...

Association of PCSK1 rs6234 with Obesity and Related Traits in a Chinese Han Population

Background Common variants in PCSK1 have been reported to be associated with obesity in populations of European origin. We aimed to replicate this association in Chinese. Methodology/Principal Findings Two PCSK1 variants rs6234 and rs6235 (in strong LD with each other, r2 = 0.98) were genotyped in a population-based cohort of 3,210 Chinese Hans. The rs6234 was used for further...

The Human Nasal Microbiota and Staphylococcus aureus Carriage

Background Colonization of humans with Staphylococcus aureus is a critical prerequisite of subsequent clinical infection of the skin, blood, lung, heart and other deep tissues. S. aureus persistently or intermittently colonizes the nares of ∼50% of healthy adults, whereas ∼50% of the general population is rarely or never colonized by this pathogen. Because microbial consortia...

Explaining the Atypical Reaction Profiles of Heme Enzymes with a Novel Mechanistic Hypothesis and Kinetic Treatment

Many heme enzymes show remarkable versatility and atypical kinetics. The fungal extracellular enzyme chloroperoxidase (CPO) characterizes a variety of one and two electron redox reactions in the presence of hydroperoxides. A structural counterpart, found in mammalian microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP), uses molecular oxygen plus NADPH for the oxidative metabolism (predominantly...

Taxonomic Distinctness of Demersal Fishes of the California Current: Moving Beyond Simple Measures of Diversity for Marine Ecosystem-Based Management

Background Large-scale patterns or trends in species diversity have long interested ecologists. The classic pattern is for diversity (e.g., species richness) to decrease with increasing latitude. Taxonomic distinctness is a diversity measure based on the relatedness of the species within a sample. Here we examined patterns of taxonomic distinctness in relation to latitude (ca. 32...

In Vivo, Multimodal Imaging of B Cell Distribution and Response to Antibody Immunotherapy in Mice

Background B cell depletion immunotherapy has been successfully employed to treat non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. In recent years, increasing attention has been directed towards also using B-cell depletion therapy as a treatment option in autoimmune disorders. However, it appears that the further development of these approaches will depend on a methodology to determine the relation of B...

Sphingosine Kinase-1 (SphK-1) Regulates Mycobacterium smegmatis Infection in Macrophages

Sphingosine kinase-1 is known to mediate Mycobacterium smegmatis induced inflammatory responses in macrophages, but its role in controlling infection has not been reported to date. We aimed to unravel the significance of SphK-1 in controlling M. smegmatis infection in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Our results demonstrated for the first time that selective inhibition of SphK-1 by either...

Integrin α5β1 Function Is Regulated by XGIPC/kermit2 Mediated Endocytosis during Xenopus laevis Gastrulation

During Xenopus gastrulation α5β1 integrin function is modulated in a temporally and spatially restricted manner, however, the regulatory mechanisms behind this regulation remain uncharacterized. Here we report that XGIPC/kermit2 binds to the cytoplasmic domain of the α5 subunit and regulates the activity of α5β1 integrin. The interaction of kermit2 with α5β1 is essential for...

Potent Cardioprotective Effect of the 4-Anilinoquinazoline Derivative PD153035: Involvement of Mitochondrial KATP Channel Activation

Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects of the 4-anilinoquinazoline derivative PD153035 on cardiac ischemia/reperfusion and mitochondrial function. Methodology/Principal Findings Perfused rat hearts and cardiac HL-1 cells were used to determine cardioprotective effects of PD153035. Isolated rat heart mitochondria were studied to uncover...

Through Ageing, and Beyond: Gut Microbiota and Inflammatory Status in Seniors and Centenarians

Background Age-related physiological changes in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as modifications in lifestyle, nutritional behaviour, and functionality of the host immune system, inevitably affect the gut microbiota, resulting in a greater susceptibility to infections. Methodology/Principal Findings By using the Human Intestinal Tract Chip (HITChip) and quantitative PCR of...

Phylogeny Disambiguates the Evolution of Heat-Shock cis-Regulatory Elements in Drosophila

Heat-shock genes have a well-studied control mechanism for their expression that is mediated through cis-regulatory motifs known as heat-shock elements (HSEs). The evolution of important features of this control mechanism has not been investigated in detail, however. Here we exploit the genome sequencing of multiple Drosophila species, combined with a wealth of available...

Thinking Outside a Less Intact Box: Thalamic Dopamine D2 Receptor Densities Are Negatively Related to Psychometric Creativity in Healthy Individuals

Several lines of evidence support that dopaminergic neurotransmission plays a role in creative thought and behavior. Here, we investigated the relationship between creative ability and dopamine D2 receptor expression in healthy individuals, with a focus on regions where aberrations in dopaminergic function have previously been associated with psychotic symptoms and a genetic...

Population Structure as Revealed by mtDNA and Microsatellites in Northern Fur Seals, Callorhinus ursinus, throughout Their Range

Background The northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus; NFS) is a widely distributed pinniped that has been shown to exhibit a high degree of philopatry to islands, breeding areas on an island, and even to specific segments of breeding areas. This level of philopatry could conceivably lead to highly genetically divergent populations. However, northern fur seals have the potential...

Characterization of the Interaction and Cross-Regulation of Three Mycobacterium tuberculosis RelBE Modules

RelBE represents a typical bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TA) system. Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, the pathogen responsible for human tuberculosis, contains three RelBE-like modules, RelBE, RelFG, and RelJK, which are at least partly expressed in human macrophages during infection. RelBE modules appear to be autoregulated in an atypical manner compared to other TA systems...

Clostridial Glucosylating Toxins Enter Cells via Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis

Clostridium difficile toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB), C. sordellii lethal toxin (TcsL) and C. novyi α-toxin (TcnA) are important pathogenicity factors, which represent the family of the clostridial glucosylating toxins (CGTs). Toxin A and B are associated with antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembraneous colitis. Lethal toxin is involved in toxic shock syndrome after...

Differential Gene Expression and Protein Abundance Evince Ontogenetic Bias toward Castes in a Primitively Eusocial Wasp

Polistes paper wasps are models for understanding conditions that may have characterized the origin of worker and queen castes and, therefore, the origin of paper wasp sociality. Polistes is “primitively eusocial” by virtue of having context-dependent caste determination and no morphological differences between castes. Even so, Polistes colonies have a temporal pattern in which...

A Locked Nucleic Acid Antisense Oligonucleotide (LNA) Silences PCSK9 and Enhances LDLR Expression In Vitro and In Vivo

Background The proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is an important factor in the etiology of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and is also an attractive therapeutic target to reduce low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. PCSK9 accelerates the degradation of hepatic low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and low levels of hepatic PCSK9 activity are...

Cannabinoid-Mediated Inhibition of Recurrent Excitatory Circuitry in the Dentate Gyrus in a Mouse Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a neurological condition associated with neuron loss, axon sprouting, and hippocampal sclerosis, which results in modified synaptic circuitry. Cannabinoids appear to be anti-convulsive in patients and animal models of TLE, but the mechanisms of this effect are not known. A pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus mouse model of TLE was used to study...

Deep Sequencing of Human Nuclear and Cytoplasmic Small RNAs Reveals an Unexpectedly Complex Subcellular Distribution of miRNAs and tRNA 3′ Trailers

Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ∼22-nt small non-coding regulatory RNAs that have generally been considered to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level in the cytoplasm. However, recent studies have reported that some miRNAs localize to and function in the nucleus. Methodology/Principal Findings To determine the number of miRNAs localized to the nucleus, we...

LIGHT Induces Distinct Signals to Clear an AAV-Expressed Persistent Antigen in the Mouse Liver and to Induce Liver Inflammation

Background Infection with adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector with liver tropism leads to persistent expression of foreign antigens in the mouse liver, with no significant liver inflammation or pathology. This provides a model to investigate antigen persistence in the liver and strategies to modulate host immunity to reduce or clear the foreign antigen expressed from AAV vector...

Genetic Influences on Incidence and Case-Fatality of Infectious Disease

Background Family, twin and adoption studies suggest that genetic susceptibility contributes to familial aggregation of infectious diseases or to death from infections. We estimated genetic and shared environmental influences separately on the risk of acquiring an infection (incidence) and on dying from it (case fatality). Methods Genetic influences were estimated by the...

Identification of MicroRNA-21 as a Biomarker for Chemoresistance and Clinical Outcome Following Adjuvant Therapy in Resectable Pancreatic Cancer

Background Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has a dismal prognosis. The high risk of recurrence following surgical resection provides the rationale for adjuvant therapy. However, only a subset of patients benefit from adjuvant therapy. Identification of molecular markers to predict treatment outcome is therefore warranted. The aim of the present study was to evaluate...

Plasma and Erythrocyte Fatty Acid Patterns in Patients with Recurrent Depression: A Matched Case-Control Study

Background The polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition of (nerve) cell membranes may be involved in the pathophysiology of depression. Studies so far, focussed mainly on omega-3 and omega-6 PUFAs. In the present study, saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and PUFAs of the omega-3, -6 and -9 series in plasma and erythrocytes of patients with...