PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 196,173)

Optimal Foraging Predicts the Ecology but Not the Evolution of Host Specialization in Bacteriophages

We explore the ability of optimal foraging theory to explain the observation among marine bacteriophages that host range appears to be negatively correlated with host abundance in the local marine environment. We modified Charnov's classic diet composition model to describe the ecological dynamics of the related generalist and specialist bacteriophages φX174 and G4, and confirmed...

Cryptococcal Neuroradiological Lesions Correlate with Severity during Cryptococcal Meningoencephalitis in HIV-Positive Patients in the HAART Era

Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis has an overall global mortality rate of 20% in AIDS patients despite antifungals. There is a need for additional means of precise assessment of disease severity. We thus studied the radiological brain images available from 62 HIV-positive patients with cryptococcocal meningoencephalitis to analyse the brain lesions associated with cryptococcosis...

Analyses of In Vivo Interaction and Mobility of Two Spliceosomal Proteins Using FRAP and BiFC

U1-70K, a U1 snRNP-specific protein, and serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins are components of the spliceosome and play critical roles in both constitutive and alternative pre-mRNA splicing. However, the mobility properties of U1-70K, its in vivo interaction with SR proteins, and the mobility of the U1-70K-SR protein complex have not been studied in any system. Here, we studied...

Establishing a Cohort at High Risk of HIV Infection in South Africa: Challenges and Experiences of the CAPRISA 002 Acute Infection Study

ObjectivesTo describe the baseline demographic data, clinical characteristics and HIV-incidence rates of a cohort at high risk for HIV infection in South Africa as well as the challenges experienced in establishing and maintaining the cohort.Methodology/Principle FindingsBetween August 2004 and May 2005 a cohort of HIV-uninfected women was established for the CAPRISA 002 Acute...

High-Efficiency Stem Cell Fusion-Mediated Assay Reveals Sall4 as an Enhancer of Reprogramming

Several methods allow reprogramming of differentiated somatic cells to embryonic stem cell-like cells. However, the process of reprogramming remains inefficient and the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we report the optimization of somatic cell fusion with embryonic stem cells in order to provide an efficient, quantitative assay to screen for factors...

Seasonal Migration Determined by a Trade-Off between Predator Avoidance and Growth

Migration is a common phenomenon in many organisms, terrestrial as well as aquatic, and considerable effort has been spent to understand the evolution of migratory behaviour and its consequences for population and community dynamics. In aquatic systems, studies on migration have mainly been focused on commercially important fish species, such as salmon and trout. However...

A Supplementary Description of Cypridina mariae and Rediagnosis of the Genus Cylindroleberis (Ostracoda: Myodocopa: Cylindroleberididae)

The ostracod family Cylindroleberididae is based on the genus Cylindroleberis Brady, 1868, and has a complicated nomenclatural history. The type species of Cylindroleberis is Cypridina mariae Baird, 1850. Baird described only the carapace, which had been considered lost. Thus, there was no reference point for the concept C. mariae or the genus Cylindroleberis. Baird's material...

EWS/FLI Mediates Transcriptional Repression via NKX2.2 during Oncogenic Transformation in Ewing's Sarcoma

EWS/FLI is a master regulator of Ewing's sarcoma formation. Gene expression studies in A673 Ewing's sarcoma cells have demonstrated that EWS/FLI downregulates more genes than it upregulates, suggesting that EWS/FLI, and/or its targets, function as transcriptional repressors. One critical EWS/FLI target, NKX2.2, is a transcription factor that contains both transcriptional...

Phonological Representations Are Unconsciously Used when Processing Complex, Non-Speech Signals

Neuroimaging studies of speech processing increasingly rely on artificial speech-like sounds whose perceptual status as speech or non-speech is assigned by simple subjective judgments; brain activation patterns are interpreted according to these status assignments. The naïve perceptual status of one such stimulus, spectrally-rotated speech (not consciously perceived as speech by...

Sialoadhesin Expressed on IFN-Induced Monocytes Binds HIV-1 and Enhances Infectivity

BackgroundHIV-1 infection dysregulates the immune system and alters gene expression in circulating monocytes. Differential gene expression analysis of CD14+ monocytes from subjects infected with HIV-1 revealed increased expression of sialoadhesin (Sn, CD169, Siglec 1), a cell adhesion molecule first described in a subset of macrophages activated in chronic inflammatory diseases...

High Genetic Differentiation between the M and S Molecular Forms of Anopheles gambiae in Africa

BackgroundAnopheles gambiae, a major vector of malaria, is widely distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa. In an attempt to eliminate infective mosquitoes, researchers are trying to develop transgenic strains that are refractory to the Plasmodium parasite. Before any release of transgenic mosquitoes can be envisaged, we need an accurate picture of the differentiation between...

Cerebrospinal Fluid Viral Load and Intrathecal Immune Activation in Individuals Infected with Different HIV-1 Genetic Subtypes

BackgroundHIV-1 exhibits a high degree of genetic diversity and is presently divided into 3 distinct HIV-1 genetic groups designated major (M), non-M/non-O (N) and outlier (O). Group M, which currently comprises 9 subtypes (A-D, F-H, J and K), at least 34 circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) and several unique recombinant forms (URFs) is responsible for most of the HIV-1 epidemic...

Immature Cryopreserved Ovary Restores Puberty and Fertility in Mice without Alteration of Epigenetic Marks

BackgroundProgress in oncology could improve survival rate in children, but would probably lead to impaired fertility and puberty. In pre-pubertal girls, the only therapeutic option is the cryopreservation of one ovary. Three births have been reported after reimplantation of cryopreserved mature ovary. Conversely, reimplantation of ovary preserved before puberty (defined as...

Activation of Interleukin-32 Pro-Inflammatory Pathway in Response to Influenza A Virus Infection

BackgroundInterleukin (IL)-32 is a recently described pro-inflammatory cytokine that has been reported to be induced by bacteria treatment in culture cells. Little is known about IL-32 production by exogenous pathogens infection in human individuals.Methods and FindingsIn this study, we found that IL-32 level was increased by 58.2% in the serum samples from a cohort of 108...

Does Sex Trade with Violence among Genotypes in Drosophila melanogaster?

The evolutionary forces shaping the ability to win competitive interactions, such as aggressive encounters, are still poorly understood. Given a fitness advantage for competitive success, variance in aggressive and sexual display traits should be depleted, but a great deal of variation in these traits is consistently found. While life history tradeoffs have been commonly cited as...

Functional Significance of Allelic Variation at methuselah, an Aging Gene in Drosophila

BackgroundLongevity and age-specific patterns of mortality are complex traits that vary within and among taxa. Multiple candidate genes for aging have been identified in model systems by extended longevity mutant phenotypes, including the G-protein coupled receptor methuselah (mth) in D. melanogaster. These genes offer important insights into the mechanisms of lifespan...

Vpr14-88-Apobec3G Fusion Protein Is Efficiently Incorporated into Vif-Positive HIV-1 Particles and Inhibits Viral Infection

BackgroundAPOBEC3G (A3G), a deoxycytidine deaminase, is a potent host antiviral factor that can restrict HIV-1 infection. During Vif-negative HIV-1 replication, A3G is incorporated into HIV-1 particles, induces mutations in reverse transcribed viral DNA and inhibits reverse transcription. However, HIV-1 Vif counteracts A3G's activities by inducing its degradation and by blocking...

Restricted Expression of Epstein-Barr Virus Latent Genes in Murine B Cells Derived from Embryonic Stem Cells

BackgroundSeveral human malignancies are associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and more than 95% of the adult human population carries this virus lifelong. EBV efficiently infects human B cells and persists in this cellular compartment latently. EBV-infected B cells become activated and growth transformed, express a characteristic set of viral latent genes, and acquire the...

Pathways to Injury in Chronic Pancreatitis: Decoding the Role of the High-Risk SPINK1 N34S Haplotype Using Meta-Analysis

BackgroundThe complex interactions between recurrent trypsin-mediated pancreatic injury, alcohol-associated pancreatic injury and SPINK1 polymorphisms in chronic pancreatitis (CP) are undefined. We hypothesize that CP occurs as a result of multiple pathological mechanisms (pathways) that are initiated by different metabolic or environmental factors (etiologies) and may be...

Cyclic and Sleep-Like Spontaneous Alternations of Brain State Under Urethane Anaesthesia

BackgroundAlthough the induction of behavioural unconsciousness during sleep and general anaesthesia has been shown to involve overlapping brain mechanisms, sleep involves cyclic fluctuations between different brain states known as active (paradoxical or rapid eye movement: REM) and quiet (slow-wave or non-REM: nREM) stages whereas commonly used general anaesthetics induce a...

High-Resolution Labeling and Functional Manipulation of Specific Neuron Types in Mouse Brain by Cre-Activated Viral Gene Expression

We describe a method that combines Cre-recombinase knockin mice and viral-mediated gene transfer to genetically label and functionally manipulate specific neuron types in the mouse brain. We engineered adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) that express GFP, dsRedExpress, or channelrhodopsin (ChR2) upon Cre/loxP recombination-mediated removal of a transcription-translation STOP cassette...

Seasonal Activity Budget of Adult Baltic Ringed Seals

Although ringed seals are important components in oceanic and fresh water ecosystems at high latitudes, little is known about how they exploit these harsh environments. Seasonal activity and diving behaviour of 19 adult Baltic ringed seals were studied by satellite telemetry. We elaborated an activity budget for ten months of the year, extending over the period from moult to the...

Methylphenidate Decreased the Amount of Glucose Needed by the Brain to Perform a Cognitive Task

The use of stimulants (methylphenidate and amphetamine) as cognitive enhancers by the general public is increasing and is controversial. It is still unclear how they work or why they improve performance in some individuals but impair it in others. To test the hypothesis that stimulants enhance signal to noise ratio of neuronal activity and thereby reduce cerebral activity by...

Rickettsia Phylogenomics: Unwinding the Intricacies of Obligate Intracellular Life

BackgroundCompleted genome sequences are rapidly increasing for Rickettsia, obligate intracellular α-proteobacteria responsible for various human diseases, including epidemic typhus and Rocky Mountain spotted fever. In light of phylogeny, the establishment of orthologous groups (OGs) of open reading frames (ORFs) will distinguish the core rickettsial genes and other group...

Unique Environmental Effects on Physical Activity Participation: A Twin Study

BackgroundThe health benefits of regular physical activity are well established. However, the relative contribution of heritable and environmental factors to physical activity participation remains controversial. Using a cut-point of 60 minutes of total activity per week, data from the GenomEUtwin project revealed consistent genetic influence on physical activity participation in...