PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 204,609)

A Proteomic Approach for the Diagnosis of Bacterial Meningitis

Background The discrimination of bacterial meningitis (BM) versus viral meningitis (VM) shapes up as a problem, when laboratory data are not equivocal, in particular, when Gram stain is negative. Methodology/Principal Findings With the aim to determine reliable marker for bacterial or viral meningitis, we subjected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to a quantitative proteomic screening...

Two Agents in the Brain: Motor Control of Unimanual and Bimanual Reaching Movements

Previous studies have suggested that the left and right hands have different specialties for motor control that can be represented as two agents in the brain. This study examined how coordinated movements are performed during bimanual reaching tasks to highlight differences in the characteristics of the hands. We examined motor movement accuracy, reaction time, and movement time...

Vascular CXCR4 Expression – a Novel Antiangiogenic Target in Gastric Cancer?

Background G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are prime candidates for novel cancer prevention and treatment strategies. We searched for differentially expressed GPCRs in node positive gastric carcinomas. Methodology/Principal Findings Differential expression of GPCRs in three node positive vs. three node negative intestinal type gastric carcinomas was analyzed by gene array...

Emergence of Micronuclei and Their Effects on the Fate of Cells under Replication Stress

The presence of micronuclei in mammalian cells is related to several mutagenetic stresses. In order to understand how micronuclei emerge, behave in cells, and affect cell fate, we performed extensive time-lapse microscopy of HeLa H2B-GFP cells in the presence of hydroxyurea at low concentration. Micronuclei formed after mitosis from lagging chromatids or chromatin bridges between...

An Odorant Receptor from the Southern House Mosquito Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Sensitive to Oviposition Attractants

Background Insect odorant receptors (ORs) are heteromers comprised of highly variable odorant-binding subunits associated with one conserved co-receptor. They are potential molecular targets for the development of novel mosquito attractants and repellents. ORs have been identified in the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, and in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. However...

Inflammation Determines the Pro-Adhesive Properties of High Extracellular D-Glucose in Human Endothelial Cells In Vitro and Rat Microvessels In Vivo

Background Hyperglycemia is acknowledged as an independent risk factor for developing diabetes-associated atherosclerosis. At present, most therapeutic approaches are targeted at a tight glycemic control in diabetic patients, although this fails to prevent macrovascular complications of the disease. Indeed, it remains highly controversial whether or not the mere elevation of...

Type-Specific Cervico-Vaginal Human Papillomavirus Infection Increases Risk of HIV Acquisition Independent of Other Sexually Transmitted Infections

Background Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 are associated with an increased risk of HIV infection. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common STI, but little is know about its role in HIV transmission. The objective of this study was to determine whether cervico-vaginal HPV infection increases the risk of HIV acquisition in women...

The Loss of Species: Mangrove Extinction Risk and Geographic Areas of Global Concern

Mangrove species are uniquely adapted to tropical and subtropical coasts, and although relatively low in number of species, mangrove forests provide at least US $1.6 billion each year in ecosystem services and support coastal livelihoods worldwide. Globally, mangrove areas are declining rapidly as they are cleared for coastal development and aquaculture and logged for timber and...

Differential Proteomic Analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana Genotypes Exhibiting Resistance or Susceptibility to the Insect Herbivore, Plutella xylostella

A proteomic study was conducted to investigate physiological factors affecting feeding behaviour by larvae of the insect, Plutella xylostella, on herbivore-susceptible and herbivore-resistant Arabidopsis thaliana. The leaves of 162 recombinant inbred lines (Rils) were screened to detect genotypes upon which Plutella larvae fed least (P. xylostella-resistant) or most (P...

The Sixth Rhino: A Taxonomic Re-Assessment of the Critically Endangered Northern White Rhinoceros

Background The two forms of white rhinoceros; northern and southern, have had contrasting conservation histories. The Northern form, once fairly numerous is now critically endangered, while the southern form has recovered from a few individuals to a population of a few thousand. Since their last taxonomic assessment over three decades ago, new material and analytical techniques...

Ectodomains of the LDL Receptor-Related Proteins LRP1b and LRP4 Have Anchorage Independent Functions In Vivo

Background The low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene family is a highly conserved group of membrane receptors with diverse functions in developmental processes, lipoprotein trafficking, and cell signaling. The low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein 1b (LRP1B) was reported to be deleted in several types of human malignancies, including non-small cell lung...

Detection and Architecture of Small Heat Shock Protein Monomers

Background Small Heat Shock Proteins (sHSPs) are chaperone-like proteins involved in the prevention of the irreversible aggregation of misfolded proteins. Although many studies have already been conducted on sHSPs, the molecular mechanisms and structural properties of these proteins remain unclear. Here, we propose a better understanding of the architecture, organization and...

A Wasp Manipulates Neuronal Activity in the Sub-Esophageal Ganglion to Decrease the Drive for Walking in Its Cockroach Prey

Background The parasitoid Jewel Wasp hunts cockroaches to serve as a live food supply for its offspring. The wasp stings the cockroach in the head and delivers a cocktail of neurotoxins directly inside the prey's cerebral ganglia. Although not paralyzed, the stung cockroach becomes a living yet docile ‘zombie’, incapable of self-initiating spontaneous or evoked walking. We show...

A System-Wide Investigation of the Dynamics of Wnt Signaling Reveals Novel Phases of Transcriptional Regulation

Aberrant Wnt signaling has been implicated in a wide variety of cancers and many components of the Wnt signaling network have now been identified. Much less is known, however, about how these proteins are coordinately regulated. Here, a broad, quantitative, and dynamic study of Wnt3a-mediated stimulation of HEK 293 cells revealed two phases of transcriptional regulation: an early...

PGC-1alpha Down-Regulation Affects the Antioxidant Response in Friedreich's Ataxia

Background Cells from individuals with Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) show reduced activities of antioxidant enzymes and cannot up-regulate their expression when exposed to oxidative stress. This blunted antioxidant response may play a central role in the pathogenesis. We previously reported that Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARγ) Coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), a...

Dissection of Host Cell Signal Transduction during Acinetobacter baumannii – Triggered Inflammatory Response

Infected airway epithelial cells up-regulate the expression of chemokines, chiefly IL-8, and antimicrobial molecules including β-defensins (BD). Acinetobacter baumannii is a cause of hospital-acquired pneumonia. We examined whether A. baumannii induced the expressions of IL-8 and BD2 by airway epithelial cells and the receptors implicated in bacterial detection. A549 and human...

The Population Structure of Acinetobacter baumannii: Expanding Multiresistant Clones from an Ancestral Susceptible Genetic Pool

Outbreaks of hospital infections caused by multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains are of increasing concern worldwide. Although it has been reported that particular outbreak strains are geographically widespread, little is known about the diversity and phylogenetic relatedness of A. baumannii clonal groups. Sequencing of internal portions of seven housekeeping genes...

Searching PubMed during a Pandemic

Background The 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic has generated thousands of articles and news items. However, finding relevant scientific articles in such rapidly developing health crises is a major challenge which, in turn, can affect decision-makers' ability to utilise up-to-date findings and ultimately shape public health interventions. This study set out to show the impact that...

The Onconeural Antigen cdr2 Is a Novel APC/C Target that Acts in Mitosis to Regulate C-Myc Target Genes in Mammalian Tumor Cells

Cdr2 is a tumor antigen expressed in a high percentage of breast and ovarian tumors and is the target of a naturally occurring tumor immune response in patients with paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration, but little is known of its regulation or function in cancer cells. Here we find that cdr2 is cell cycle regulated in tumor cells with protein levels peaking in mitosis. As...

The Walking Behaviour of Pedestrian Social Groups and Its Impact on Crowd Dynamics

Human crowd motion is mainly driven by self-organized processes based on local interactions among pedestrians. While most studies of crowd behaviour consider only interactions among isolated individuals, it turns out that up to 70% of people in a crowd are actually moving in groups, such as friends, couples, or families walking together. These groups constitute medium-scale...

Why Do African Elephants (Loxodonta africana) Simulate Oestrus? An Analysis of Longitudinal Data

Female African elephants signal oestrus via chemicals in their urine, but they also exhibit characteristic changes to their posture, gait and behaviour when sexually receptive. Free-ranging females visually signal receptivity by holding their heads and tails high, walking with an exaggerated gait, and displaying increased tactile behaviour towards males. Parous females...

FAM5C Contributes to Aggressive Periodontitis

Aggressive periodontitis is characterized by a rapid and severe periodontal destruction in young systemically healthy subjects. A greater prevalence is reported in Africans and African descendent groups than in Caucasians and Hispanics. We first fine mapped the interval 1q24.2 to 1q31.3 suggested as containing an aggressive periodontitis locus. Three hundred and eighty-nine...

The Mitochondrial Fusion-Promoting Factor Mitofusin Is a Substrate of the PINK1/Parkin Pathway

Loss-of-function mutations in the PINK1 or parkin genes result in recessive heritable forms of parkinsonism. Genetic studies of Drosophila orthologs of PINK1 and parkin indicate that PINK1, a mitochondrially targeted serine/threonine kinase, acts upstream of Parkin, a cytosolic ubiquitin-protein ligase, to promote mitochondrial fragmentation, although the molecular mechanisms by...

Ganglioside GM3 Levels Are Altered in a Mouse Model of HIBM: GM3 as a Cellular Marker of the Disease

Objective HIBM (Hereditary Inclusion Body Myopathy) is a recessive hereditary disease characterized by adult-onset, slowly progressive muscle weakness sparing the quadriceps. It is caused by a single missense mutation of each allele of the UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase (GNE) gene, a bifunctional enzyme catalyzing the first two steps of sialic acid...

Evaluating Molecular Mechanical Potentials for Helical Peptides and Proteins

Multiple variants of the AMBER all-atom force field were quantitatively evaluated with respect to their ability to accurately characterize helix-coil equilibria in explicit solvent simulations. Using a global distributed computing network, absolute conformational convergence was achieved for large ensembles of the capped A21 and Fs helical peptides. Further assessment of these...