PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 207,492)

Involvement of placental growth factor upregulated via TGF-β1-ALK1-Smad1/5 signaling in prohaptoglobin-induced angiogenesis

A potential role of haptoglobin in arterial restructuring has been suggested, and our previous study demonstrated that prohaptoglobin, the precursor of haptoglobin, stimulates endothelial angiogenesis. However, the mechanisms underlying the angiogenic effects of prohaptoglobin are still unclear. Here, we investigated angiogenic signaling induced by prohaptoglobin using human...

Associations among circulating levels of follistatin-like 1, clinical parameters, and cardiovascular events in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stents

Objectives Follistatin-like 1 (FSTL1) is a glycoprotein secreted by skeletal muscle cells and cardiac myocytes. Previous studies showed that serum FSTL1 concentrations were increased in acute coronary syndrome and chronic heart failure. The aim of this study was to assess the associations among plasma FSTL1 concentration, clinical parameters, and whether FSTL1 concentration could...

Investigating the exposure of Iranian households to catastrophic health expenditure due to the need to purchase medicines

Background Catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) is an indicator used by the World Health Organization (WHO) to assess equity in households’ payments to the health system. In this paper, we prospectively calculated the population at risk of facing catastrophic expenditure due to purchasing three selected medicines (metformin, atorvastatin and amoxicillin) in Iran. Method This...

Identification of GCC-box and TCC-box motifs in the promoters of differentially expressed genes in rice (Oryza sativa L.): Experimental and computational approaches

The transcription factor selectively binds with the cis-regulatory elements of the promoter and regulates the differential expression of genes. In this study, we aimed to identify and validate the presence of GCC-box and TCC-box motifs in the promoters of upregulated differentially expressed genes (UR-DEGs) and downregulated differentially expressed genes (DR-DEGs) under anoxia...

Computational modeling of pancreatic cancer patients receiving FOLFIRINOX and gemcitabine-based therapies identifies optimum intervention strategies

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) exhibits a variety of phenotypes with regard to disease progression and treatment response. This variability complicates clinical decision-making despite the improvement of survival due to the recent introduction of FOLFIRINOX (FFX) and nab-paclitaxel. Questions remain as to the timing and sequence of therapies and the role of radiotherapy...

Suture length to wound length ratio for simple continuous abdominal closures in veterinary surgery: An experimental in vitro study

Objective This study aimed to investigate the suture length to wound length ratio (SL:WL) in an in vitro model of abdominal wall closure. Effects of the surgeon’s experience level on the SL:WL ratio were evaluated, hypothesizing that small animal surgeons do not spontaneously apply SL:WL ratios equal to or larger than 4:1. Procedures Three groups of surgeons with varying levels...

Use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and associated outcomes in children hospitalized for sepsis in the United States: A large population-based study

Objective The American College of Critical Care Medicine recommends that children with persistent fluid, catecholamine, and hormone-resistant septic shock be considered for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. Current national estimates of ECMO use in hospitalized children with sepsis are unknown. We sought to examine the use of ECMO in these children and to...

Prediction of small-for-gestational age by fetal growth rate according to gestational age

Background Small-for-gestational age (SGA) infants should be identified before birth because of an increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of fetal growth rate by gestational age on the prediction of SGA and to identify the optimal time to initiate intensive fetal monitoring to detect SGA in low-risk women. We also sought...

Does interacting with trustworthy people enhance mindfulness? An experience sampling study of mindfulness in everyday situations

Mindfulness is known to increase after meditation interventions. But might features of our everyday situations outside of meditation not also influence our mindfulness from moment-to-moment? Drawing from psychological research on interpersonal trust, we suggest that interacting with trustworthy people could influence the expression of mindfulness. And, extending this research on...

The design, launch and assessment of a new volunteer-based plant monitoring scheme for the United Kingdom

Volunteer-based plant monitoring in the UK has focused mainly on distribution mapping; there has been less emphasis on the collection of data on plant communities and habitats. Abundance data provide different insights into ecological pattern and allow for more powerful inference when considering environmental change. Abundance monitoring for other groups of organisms is well...

Activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling by a novel agonist ameliorates autoimmune encephalomyelitis

Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a widespread neurological autoimmune disease that includes episodes of demyelination in the central nervous system (CNS). The accumulated evidence has suggested that aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr), a ligand-activated transcription factor, is a promising treatment target for MS. Thus, the current study aimed to identify a novel Ahr ligand...

Fatty acid profile, physicochemical composition and sensorial attributes of salted and sun-dried meat from young Nellore bulls supplemented with condensed tannins

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of condensed tannin inclusion (0, 10, 30 or 50 g/kg of dry matter (DM) total) from Acacia mearnsii extract on the fatty acid profile, physicochemical quality and sensorial analysis of salted and sun-dried meat from young Nellore bulls. The inclusion of condensed tannin extract in the young bulls’ diets promoted a quadratic...

Impact of reproductive aging on the vaginal microbiome and soluble immune mediators in women living with and at-risk for HIV infection

Background Reproductive aging may impact the vaginal microbiome and genital tract mucosal immune environment and contribute to genital tract health in women living with and at-risk for HIV infection. Methods A cross-sectional study of 102 HIV+ (51 premenopausal, 51 postmenopausal) and 39 HIV-uninfected (HIV-) (20 premenopausal, 19 postmenopausal) women was performed in Bronx and...

Evaluating nursery pig responses to in-feed sub-therapeutic antibiotics

Antibiotics have been used for over 60 years by the swine industry to improve growth performance and feed efficiency. With rising concerns over antimicrobial resistance and government restrictions such as the Veterinary Feed Directive on usage of in-feed antibiotics, alternatives to feeding antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) to nursery pigs are needed. However, the mechanism of...

Researchers collaborate with same-gendered colleagues more often than expected across the life sciences

Evidence suggests that women in academia are hindered by conscious and unconscious biases, and often feel excluded from formal and informal opportunities for research collaboration. In addition to ensuring fairness and helping to redress gender imbalance in the academic workforce, increasing women’s access to collaboration could help scientific progress by drawing on more of the...

Prediction of binding property of RNA-binding proteins using multi-sized filters and multi-modal deep convolutional neural network

RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are important in gene expression regulations by post-transcriptional control of RNAs and immune system development and its function. Due to the help of sequencing technology, numerous RNA sequences are newly discovered without knowing their binding partner RBPs. Therefore, demands for accurate prediction method for RBP binding sites are increasing...

Extent of the annual Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone influences microbial community structure

Rich geochemical datasets generated over the past 30 years have provided fine-scale resolution on the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM) coastal hypoxic (≤ 2 mg of O2 L-1) zone. In contrast, little is known about microbial community structure and activity in the hypoxic zone despite the implication that microbial respiration is responsible for forming low dissolved oxygen (DO...

A model of contact-induced language change: Testing the role of second language speakers in the evolution of Mozambican Portuguese

Language change is accelerated by language contact, especially by contact that occurs when a group of speakers shifts from one language to another. This has commonly been explained by linguistic innovation occurring during second language acquisition. This hypothesis is based on historical reconstructions of instances of contact and has not been formally tested on empirical data...

Specific interaction of zinc finger protein Com with RNA and the crystal structure of a self-complementary RNA duplex recognized by Com

The bacteriophage Mu Com is a small zinc finger protein that binds to its cognate mom mRNA and activates its translation. The Mom protein, in turn, elicits a chemical modification (momification) of the bacteriophage genome, rendering the DNA resistant to cleavage by bacterial restriction endonucleases, and thereby protecting it from defense mechanisms of the host. We examined the...

Evaluation of enterotoxin gene expression and enterotoxin production capacity of the probiotic strain Bacillus toyonensis BCT-7112T

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the safety of the probiotic strain Bacillus toyonensis BCT-7112T (active ingredient of Toyocerin) in relation to the enterotoxins haemolysin BL (Hbl) and the non-haemolytic enterotoxin (Nhe) by performing a quantitative reverse transcription (RT) real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a Western blot assay. The expression levels...

Appropriate empiric antibiotic choices in health care associated urinary tract infections in urology departments in Europe from 2006 to 2015: A Bayesian analytical approach applied in a surveillance study

Background Health care associated urinary tract infections (HAUTI) is a common complicating factor of urological practice. It is unclear what the appropriate empirical antibiotic choices are and how infection control policies (ICP) influence this. The aim of this study is to use probabilistic approaches towards the problem. That is to determine the chances of coverage of...

Maternal healthcare insurance ownership and service utilisation in Ghana: Analysis of Ghana Demographic and Health Survey

Objectives Previous studies have attempted to assess the role of health insurance on health care utilization in African settings. However, there is limited evidence on the effects of health insurance on use of maternal health care. In the present study our objective was to measure the prevalence of insurance ownership, types of services covered by the insurance and the...

Underreported and unknown student harassment at the Faculty of Science

Reports of sexual harassment at medical faculties throughout the world, including the Radboud University, raised the question how prevalent this is at the Faculty of Science. We performed a survey among students to assess their experiences with harassment. This questionnaire consisted of questions from the EGERA survey, a questionnaire held among staff of multiple European...

Association between ultraviolet radiation exposure dose and cataract in Han people living in China and Taiwan: A cross-sectional study

Purpose We investigated associations between ocular ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure dose and cataract opacities among Han people living in China and Taiwan, to assess the effects of UV exposure intensity. Methods This cross-sectional study included Han people aged ≥40 years (1,801 individuals, 450 in Sanya, 636 in Taiyuan, and 715 in Taichung) as subjects who completed a...