PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 202,519)

Muscle Dystroglycan Organizes the Postsynapse and Regulates Presynaptic Neurotransmitter Release at the Drosophila Neuromuscular Junction

BackgroundThe Dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) comprises dystrophin, dystroglycan, sarcoglycan, dystrobrevin and syntrophin subunits. In muscle fibers, it is thought to provide an essential mechanical link between the intracellular cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix and to protect the sarcolemma during muscle contraction. Mutations affecting the DGC cause muscular...

The Nod-Like Receptor (NLR) Family: A Tale of Similarities and Differences

Innate immunity represents an important system with a variety of vital processes at the core of many diseases. In recent years, the central role of the Nod-like receptor (NLR) protein family became increasingly appreciated in innate immune responses. NLRs are classified as part of the signal transduction ATPases with numerous domains (STAND) clade within the AAA+ ATPase family...

SAM Domain-Based Protein Oligomerization Observed by Live-Cell Fluorescence Fluctuation Spectroscopy

Sterile-alpha-motif (SAM) domains are common protein interaction motifs observed in organisms as diverse as yeast and human. They play a role in protein homo- and hetero-interactions in processes ranging from signal transduction to RNA binding. In addition, mutations in SAM domain and SAM-mediated oligomers have been linked to several diseases. To date, the observation of...

Genome Reshuffling for Advanced Intercross Permutation (GRAIP): Simulation and Permutation for Advanced Intercross Population Analysis

BackgroundAdvanced intercross lines (AIL) are segregating populations created using a multi-generation breeding protocol for fine mapping complex trait loci (QTL) in mice and other organisms. Applying QTL mapping methods for intercross and backcross populations, often followed by naïve permutation of individuals and phenotypes, does not account for the effect of AIL family...

ESAT-6/CFP10 Skin Test Predicts Disease in M. tuberculosis-Infected Guinea Pigs

BackgroundTargeted preventive chemotherapy of individuals with progressive subclinical (incipient) disease before it becomes contagious would break the chain of tuberculosis transmission in high endemic regions. We have studied the ability of a skin test response to ESAT-6 and CFP10 (E6/C10) to predict later development of tuberculosis disease in the guinea pig model.Methods and...

Marine Incursion: The Freshwater Herring of Lake Tanganyika Are the Product of a Marine Invasion into West Africa

The spectacular marine-like diversity of the endemic fauna of Lake Tanganyika, the oldest of the African Great Lakes, led early researchers to suggest that the lake must have once been connected to the ocean. Recent geophysical reconstructions clearly indicate that Lake Tanganyika formed by rifting in the African subcontinent and was never directly linked to the sea. Although the...

The T7-Primer Is a Source of Experimental Bias and Introduces Variability between Microarray Platforms

Eberwine(-like) amplification of mRNA adds distinct 6–10 bp nucleotide stretches to the 5′ end of amplified RNA transcripts. Analysis of over six thousand microarrays reveals that probes containing motifs complementary to these stretches are associated with aberrantly high signals up to a hundred fold the signal observed in unaffected probes. This is not observed when total RNA...

Antihypertensive Drug Guanabenz Is Active In Vivo against both Yeast and Mammalian Prions

BackgroundPrion-based diseases are incurable transmissible neurodegenerative disorders affecting animals and humans.Methodology/Principal FindingsHere we report the discovery of the in vivo antiprion activity of Guanabenz (GA), an agonist of α2-adrenergic receptors routinely used in human medicine as an antihypertensive drug. We isolated GA in a screen for drugs active in vivo...

Default Pathway of var2csa Switching and Translational Repression in Plasmodium falciparum

Antigenic variation is a subtle process of fundamental importance to the survival of a microbial pathogen. In Plasmodium falciparum malaria, PfEMP1 is the major variable antigen and adhesin expressed at the surface of the infected erythrocyte, which is encoded for by members of a family of 60 var-genes. Peri-nuclear repositioning and epigenetic mechanisms control their mono...

Treg Depletion Inhibits Efficacy of Cancer Immunotherapy: Implications for Clinical Trials

BackgroundRegulatory T lymphocytes (Treg) infiltrate human glioblastoma (GBM); are involved in tumor progression and correlate with tumor grade. Transient elimination of Tregs using CD25 depleting antibodies (PC61) has been found to mediate GBM regression in preclinical models of brain tumors. Clinical trials that combine Treg depletion with tumor vaccination are underway to...

Serum Antibodies to Porphyromonas gingivalis Chaperone HtpG Predict Health in Periodontitis Susceptible Patients

BackgroundChaperones are ubiquitous conserved proteins critical in stabilization of new proteins, repair/removal of defective proteins and immunodominant antigens in innate and adaptive immunity. Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory infection associated with infection by Porphyromonas gingivalis that culminates in the destruction of the supporting structures of the teeth...

Interactive “Video Doctor” Counseling Reduces Drug and Sexual Risk Behaviors among HIV-Positive Patients in Diverse Outpatient Settings

BackgroundReducing substance use and unprotected sex by HIV-positive persons improves individual health status while decreasing the risk of HIV transmission. Despite recommendations that health care providers screen and counsel their HIV-positive patients for ongoing behavioral risks, it is unknown how to best provide “prevention with positives” in clinical settings. Positive...

Inferring MicroRNA Activities by Combining Gene Expression with MicroRNA Target Prediction

BackgroundMicroRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in a variety of biological processes via regulating expression of their target genes at the mRNA level. A number of computational approaches regarding miRNAs have been proposed, but most of them focus on miRNA gene finding or target predictions. Little computational work has been done to investigate the effective regulation of...

Distinct Haptic Cues Do Not Reduce Interference when Learning to Reach in Multiple Force Fields

BackgroundPrevious studies of learning to adapt reaching movements in the presence of novel forces show that learning multiple force fields is prone to interference. Recently it has been suggested that force field learning may reflect learning to manipulate a novel object. Within this theoretical framework, interference in force field learning may be the result of static tactile...

Does 3-Day Course of Oral Amoxycillin Benefit Children of Non-Severe Pneumonia with Wheeze: A Multicentric Randomised Controlled Trial

BackgroundWHO-defined pneumonias, treated with antibiotics, are responsible for a significant proportion of childhood morbidity and mortality in the developing countries. Since substantial proportion pneumonias have a viral etiology, where children are more likely to present with wheeze, there is a concern that currently antibiotics are being over-prescribed for it. Hence the...

Truncated Power Laws Reveal a Link between Low-Level Behavioral Processes and Grouping Patterns in a Colonial Bird

BackgroundDepartures from power law group size frequency distributions have been proposed as a useful tool to link individual behavior with population patterns and dynamics, although examples are scarce for wild animal populations.Methodology/Principal FindingsWe studied a population of Lesser kestrels (Falco naumanni) breeding in groups (colonies) from one to ca. 40 breeding...

Intradermally Administered Yellow Fever Vaccine at Reduced Dose Induces a Protective Immune Response: A Randomized Controlled Non-Inferiority Trial

BackgroundImplementation of yellow fever vaccination is currently hampered by limited supply of vaccine. An alternative route of administration with reduced amounts of vaccine but without loss of vaccine efficacy would boost vaccination programmes.Methods and FindingsA randomized, controlled, non-inferiority trial was conducted in a Dutch university center between August 2005 and...

Sorting Signals, N-Terminal Modifications and Abundance of the Chloroplast Proteome

Characterization of the chloroplast proteome is needed to understand the essential contribution of the chloroplast to plant growth and development. Here we present a large scale analysis by nanoLC-Q-TOF and nanoLC-LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (MS) of ten independent chloroplast preparations from Arabidopsis thaliana which unambiguously identified 1325 proteins. Novel proteins...

Automated Three-Dimensional Detection and Shape Classification of Dendritic Spines from Fluorescence Microscopy Images

A fundamental challenge in understanding how dendritic spine morphology controls learning and memory has been quantifying three-dimensional (3D) spine shapes with sufficient precision to distinguish morphologic types, and sufficient throughput for robust statistical analysis. The necessity to analyze large volumetric data sets accurately, efficiently, and in true 3D has been a...

Understanding Water Equilibration Fundamentals as a Step for Rational Protein Crystallization

BackgroundVapor diffusion is the most widely used technique for protein crystallization and the rate of water evaporation plays a key role on the quality of the crystals. Attempts have been made in the past to solve the mass transfer problem governing the evaporation process, either analytically or by employing numerical methods. Despite these efforts, the methods used for...

Anti-HIV Activity Mediated by Natural Killer and CD8+ Cells after Toll-Like Receptor 7/8 Triggering

We previously found that triggering TLR7/8 either by single stranded HIV RNA or synthetic compounds induced changes in the lymphoid microenvironment unfavorable to HIV. In this study, we used selective TLR7 and 8 agonists to dissect their contribution to the anti-HIV effects. While triggering TLR7 inhibited efficiently HIV replication in lymphoid suspension cells from tonsillar...

Genetic Determination and Linkage Mapping of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Related Traits in Senegal

Plasmodium falciparum malaria episodes may vary considerably in their severity and clinical manifestations. There is good evidence that host genetic factors contribute to this variability. To date, most genetic studies aiming at the identification of these genes have used a case/control study design for severe malaria, exploring specific candidate genes. Here, we performed a...

Normalized Cut Group Clustering of Resting-State fMRI Data

BackgroundFunctional brain imaging studies have indicated that distinct anatomical brain regions can show coherent spontaneous neuronal activity during rest. Regions that show such correlated behavior are said to form resting-state networks (RSNs). RSNs have been investigated using seed-dependent functional connectivity maps and by using a number of model-free methods. However...

Damaged DNA Binding Protein 2 Plays a Role in Breast Cancer Cell Growth

The Damaged DNA binding protein 2 (DDB2), is involved in nucleotide excision repair as well as in other biological processes in normal cells, including transcription and cell cycle regulation. Loss of DDB2 function may be related to tumor susceptibility. However, hypothesis of this study was that DDB2 could play a role in breast cancer cell growth, resulting in its well known...

Floral Temperature and Optimal Foraging: Is Heat a Feasible Floral Reward for Pollinators?

As well as nutritional rewards, some plants also reward ectothermic pollinators with warmth. Bumble bees have some control over their temperature, but have been shown to forage at warmer flowers when given a choice, suggesting that there is some advantage to them of foraging at warm flowers (such as reducing the energy required to raise their body to flight temperature before...