PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 207,701)

Factors Contributing to the Biofilm-Deficient Phenotype of Staphylococcus aureus sarA Mutants

Mutation of sarA in Staphylococcus aureus results in a reduced capacity to form a biofilm, but the mechanistic basis for this remains unknown. Previous transcriptional profiling experiments identified a number of genes that are differentially expressed both in a biofilm and in a sarA mutant. This included genes involved in acid tolerance and the production of nucleolytic and...

Evolutionary Signatures of Common Human Cis-Regulatory Haplotypes

Variation in gene expression may give rise to a significant fraction of inter-individual phenotypic variation. Studies searching for the underlying genetic controls for such variation have been conducted in model organisms and humans in recent years. In our previous effort of assessing conserved underlying haplotype patterns across ethnic populations, we constructed common...

A Non-Canonical Function of Zebrafish Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Is Required for Developmental Hematopoiesis

Although it is clear that telomerase expression is crucial for the maintenance of telomere homeostasis, there is increasing evidence that the TERT protein can have physiological roles that are independent of this central function. To further examine the role of telomerase during vertebrate development, the zebrafish telomerase reverse transcriptase (zTERT) was functionally...

ama1 Genes of Sympatric Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum from Venezuela Differ Significantly in Genetic Diversity and Recombination Frequency

Background We present the first population genetic analysis of homologous loci from two sympatric human malaria parasite populations sharing the same human hosts, using full-length sequences of ama1 genes from Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum collected in the Venezuelan Amazon. Methodology/Principal Findings Significant differences between the two species were found in genetic...

Dysfunction of Nrf-2 in CF Epithelia Leads to Excess Intracellular H2O2 and Inflammatory Cytokine Production

Cystic fibrosis is characterized by recurring pulmonary exacerbations that lead to the deterioration of lung function and eventual lung failure. Excessive inflammatory responses by airway epithelia have been linked to the overproduction of the inflammatory cytokine IL-6 and IL-8. The mechanism by which this occurs is not fully understood, but normal IL-1β mediated activation of...

Probing Metagenomics by Rapid Cluster Analysis of Very Large Datasets

Background The scale and diversity of metagenomic sequencing projects challenge both our technical and conceptual approaches in gene and genome annotations. The recent Sorcerer II Global Ocean Sampling (GOS) expedition yielded millions of predicted protein sequences, which significantly altered the landscape of known protein space by more than doubling its size and adding...

Genome Wide Identification of Recessive Cancer Genes by Combinatorial Mutation Analysis

We devised a novel procedure to identify human cancer genes acting in a recessive manner. Our strategy was to combine the contributions of the different types of genetic alterations to loss of function: amino-acid substitutions, frame-shifts, gene deletions. We studied over 20,000 genes in 3 Gigabases of coding sequences and 700 array comparative genomic hybridizations. Recessive...

Mutants of GABA Transaminase (POP2) Suppress the Severe Phenotype of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ssadh) Mutants in Arabidopsis

Background The γ-aminubutyrate (GABA) shunt bypasses two steps of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and is present in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In plants, the pathway is composed of the calcium/calmodulin-regulated cytosolic enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), the mitochondrial enzymes GABA transaminase (GABA-T; POP2) and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH). We have...

Cortical Activations in Humans Grasp-Related Areas Depend on Hand Used and Handedness

Background In non-human primates grasp-related sensorimotor transformations are accomplished in a circuit involving the anterior intraparietal sulcus (area AIP) and both the ventral and the dorsal sectors of the premotor cortex (vPMC and dPMC, respectively). Although a human homologue of such a circuit has been identified whether activity within this circuit varies depending on...

Hemispheric Specialization in Dogs for Processing Different Acoustic Stimuli

Considerable experimental evidence shows that functional cerebral asymmetries are widespread in animals. Activity of the right cerebral hemisphere has been associated with responses to novel stimuli and the expression of intense emotions, such as aggression, escape behaviour and fear. The left hemisphere uses learned patterns and responds to familiar stimuli. Although such...

Rapid Chromosome Evolution in Recently Formed Polyploids in Tragopogon (Asteraceae)

Background Polyploidy, frequently termed “whole genome duplication”, is a major force in the evolution of many eukaryotes. Indeed, most angiosperm species have undergone at least one round of polyploidy in their evolutionary history. Despite enormous progress in our understanding of many aspects of polyploidy, we essentially have no information about the role of chromosome...

Tree of Life Based on Genome Context Networks

Efforts in phylogenomics have greatly improved our understanding of the backbone tree of life. However, due to the systematic error in sequence data, a sequence-based phylogenomic approach leads to well-resolved but statistically significant incongruence. Thus, independent test of current phylogenetic knowledge is required. Here, we have devised a distance-based strategy to...

Discovery and Expansion of Gene Modules by Seeking Isolated Groups in a Random Graph Process

Background A central problem in systems biology research is the identification and extension of biological modules–groups of genes or proteins participating in a common cellular process or physical complex. As a result, there is a persistent need for practical, principled methods to infer the modular organization of genes from genome-scale data. Results We introduce a novel...

CD44s and CD44v6 Expression in Head and Neck Epithelia

Background CD44 splice variants are long-known as being associated with cell transformation. Recently, the standard form of CD44 (CD44s) was shown to be part of the signature of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in colon, breast, and in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). This is somewhat in contradiction to previous reports on the expression of CD44s in HNSCC. The aim of the...

Effect of Adjunct Metformin Treatment in Patients with Type-1 Diabetes and Persistent Inadequate Glycaemic Control. A Randomized Study

Background Despite intensive insulin treatment, many patients with type-1 diabetes (T1DM) have longstanding inadequate glycaemic control. Metformin is an oral hypoglycaemic agent that improves insulin action in patients with type-2 diabetes. We investigated the effect of a one-year treatment with metformin versus placebo in patients with T1DM and persistent poor glycaemic control...

Mutual Mate Choice: When it Pays Both Sexes to Avoid Inbreeding

Theoretical models of sexual selection predict that both males and females of many species should benefit by selecting their mating partners. However, empirical evidence testing and validating this prediction is scarce. In particular, whereas inbreeding avoidance is expected to induce sexual conflicts, in some cases both partners could benefit by acting in concert and exerting...

Virulent Synergistic Effect between Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli Assayed by Using the Caenorhabditis elegans Model

Background The role of enterococci in the pathogenesis of polymicrobial infections is still debated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of virulent enterococci in the presence or absence of Escherichia coli strains in the in vivo Caenorhabditis elegans model. Principal Findings This study demonstrated that there was a synergistic effect on virulence when an...

Genetic Dissimilarity between Mates, but Not Male Heterozygosity, Influences Divorce in Schistosomes

Background Correlational studies strongly suggest that both genetic similarity and heterozygosity can influence female mate choice. However, the influence of each variable has usually been tested independently, although similarity and heterozygosity might be correlated. We experimentally determined the relative influence of genetic similarity and heterozygosity in divorce and re...

A Functional Misexpression Screen Uncovers a Role for Enabled in Progressive Neurodegeneration

Drosophila is a well-established model to study the molecular basis of neurodegenerative diseases. We carried out a misexpression screen to identify genes involved in neurodegeneration examining locomotor behavior in young and aged flies. We hypothesized that a progressive loss of rhythmic activity could reveal novel genes involved in neurodegenerative mechanisms. One of the...

Hybridization among Three Native North American Canis Species in a Region of Natural Sympatry

Background Population densities of many species throughout the world are changing due to direct persecution as well as anthropogenic habitat modification. These changes may induce or increase the frequency of hybridization among taxa. If extensive, hybridization can threaten the genetic integrity or survival of endangered species. Three native species of the genus Canis, coyote...

Allele-Specific RNA Silencing of Mutant Ataxin-3 Mediates Neuroprotection in a Rat Model of Machado-Joseph Disease

Recent studies have demonstrated that RNAi is a promising approach for treating autosomal dominant disorders. However, discrimination between wild-type and mutant transcripts is essential, to preserve wild-type expression and function. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is present in more than 70% of patients with Machado-Joseph disease (MJD). We investigated whether this SNP...

Ubiquitous Water-Soluble Molecules in Aquatic Plant Exudates Determine Specific Insect Attraction

Plants produce semio-chemicals that directly influence insect attraction and/or repulsion. Generally, this attraction is closely associated with herbivory and has been studied mainly under atmospheric conditions. On the other hand, the relationship between aquatic plants and insects has been little studied. To determine whether the roots of aquatic macrophytes release attractive...

Identification of Nuclear and Cytoplasmic mRNA Targets for the Shuttling Protein SF2/ASF

The serine and arginine-rich protein family (SR proteins) are highly conserved regulators of pre-mRNA splicing. SF2/ASF, a prototype member of the SR protein family, is a multifunctional RNA binding protein with roles in pre-mRNA splicing, mRNA export and mRNA translation. These observations suggest the intriguing hypothesis that SF2/ASF may couple splicing and translation of...

Fetal and Neonatal Nicotine Exposure in Wistar Rats Causes Progressive Pancreatic Mitochondrial Damage and Beta Cell Dysfunction

Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is currently recommended as a safe smoking cessation aid for pregnant women. However, fetal and neonatal nicotine exposure in rats causes mitochondrial-mediated beta cell apoptosis at weaning, and adult-onset dysglycemia, which we hypothesize is related to progressive mitochondrial dysfunction in the pancreas. Therefore in this study we examined...

Paired Assessment of Volatile Anesthetic Concentrations with Synaptic Actions Recorded In Vitro

The volatile anesthetic isoflurane poses a number of experimental challenges in the laboratory. Due to its rapid evaporation, the open conditions of most in vitro electrophysiological recording systems make the determination of actual isoflurane concentrations a challenge. Since the absolute anesthetic concentration in solution is directly related to efficacy, concentration...