PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 207,488)

Searching for Tissue-Specific Expression Pattern-Linked Nucleotides of UGT1A Isoforms

UDP-glucuronosyltransferases 1A isoforms belong to a superfamily of microsomal enzymes responsible for glucuronidation of numerous endogenous and exogenous compounds. The nine functional UGT1A isoforms are encoded by a single UGT1A gene locus with multiple first exons. The expression of the UGT1A transcripts was measured by quantitative RT-PCR in 23 normal human tissues. The...

Dynamic Social Adaptation of Motion-Related Neurons in Primate Parietal Cortex

Social brain function, which allows us to adapt our behavior to social context, is poorly understood at the single-cell level due largely to technical limitations. But the questions involved are vital: How do neurons recognize and modulate their activity in response to social context? To probe the mechanisms involved, we developed a novel recording technique, called multi...

Tbx2 and Tbx3 Regulate the Dynamics of Cell Proliferation during Heart Remodeling

BackgroundThe heart forms from a linear tube that is subject to complex remodeling during embryonic development. Hallmarks of this remodeling are the looping of the heart tube and the regionalization into chamber and non-chamber myocardium. Cardiomyocytes in the future chamber myocardium acquire different cellular and physiological characteristics through activation of a chamber...

Dipstick for Rapid Diagnosis of Shigella flexneri 2a in Stool

BackgroundShigellosis or bacillary dysentery, an acute bloody diarrhoea, is a major public health burden in developing countries. In the absence of prompt and appropriate treatment, the infection is often fatal, particularly in young malnourished children. Here, we describe a new diagnostic test for rapid detection, in stool, at the bedside of patients, of Shigella flexneri 2a...

Increased Neural Activity of a Mushroom Body Neuron Subtype in the Brains of Forager Honeybees

Honeybees organize a sophisticated society, and the workers transmit information about the location of food sources using a symbolic dance, known as ‘dance communication’. Recent studies indicate that workers integrate sensory information during foraging flight for dance communication. The neural mechanisms that account for this remarkable ability are, however, unknown. In the...

Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Guinea-Bissau: A Sexually Transmitted Genotype 2 with Parenteral Amplification?

BackgroundSub-Saharan Africa is the continent with the highest prevalence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Genotype 2 HCV is thought to have originated from West Africa several hundred years ago. Mechanisms of transmission remain poorly understood.Methodology/Principal FindingsTo delineate mechanisms for HCV transmission in West Africa, we conducted a cross-sectional survey...

Neurosphere-Derived Cells Exert a Neuroprotective Action by Changing the Ischemic Microenvironment

BackgroundNeurosphere-derived cells (NC), containing neural stem cells, various progenitors and more differentiated cells, were obtained from newborn C57/BL6 mice and infused in a murine model of focal ischemia with reperfusion to investigate if: 1) they decreased ischemic injury and restored brain function; 2) they induced changes in the environment in which they are infused; 3...

Evolution of Axis Specification Mechanisms in Jawed Vertebrates: Insights from a Chondrichthyan

The genetic mechanisms that control the establishment of early polarities and their link with embryonic axis specification and patterning seem to substantially diverge across vertebrates. In amphibians and teleosts, the establishment of an early dorso-ventral polarity determines both the site of axis formation and its rostro-caudal orientation. In contrast, amniotes retain a...

Mechanisms of TSC-mediated Control of Synapse Assembly and Axon Guidance

Tuberous sclerosis complex is a dominant genetic disorder produced by mutations in either of two tumor suppressor genes, TSC1 and TSC2; it is characterized by hamartomatous tumors, and is associated with severe neurological and behavioral disturbances. Mutations in TSC1 or TSC2 deregulate a conserved growth control pathway that includes Ras homolog enriched in brain (Rheb) and...

Sleep Enforces the Temporal Order in Memory

Background Temporal sequence represents the main principle underlying episodic memory. The storage of temporal sequence information is thought to involve hippocampus-dependent memory systems, preserving temporal structure possibly via chaining of sequence elements in heteroassociative networks. Converging evidence indicates that sleep enhances the consolidation of recently...

Established Risk Factors Account for Most of the Racial Differences in Cardiovascular Disease Mortality

BackgroundCardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality varies across racial and ethnic groups in the U.S., and the extent that known risk factors can explain the differences has not been extensively explored.MethodsWe examined the risk of dying from acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and other heart disease (OHD) among 139,406 African-American (AA), Native Hawaiian (NH), Japanese...

Model Structure of Human APOBEC3G

BackgroundAPOBEC3G (apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G) has antiretroviral activity associated with the hypermutation of viral DNA through cytosine deamination. APOBEC3G has two cytosine deaminase (CDA) domains; the catalytically inactive amino-terminal domain of APOBEC3G (N-CDA) carries the Vif interaction domain. There is no 3-D structure of...

Divergent Evolution among Teleost V1r Receptor Genes

The survival of vertebrate species is dependent on the ability of individuals to adequately interact with each other, a function often mediated by the olfactory system. Diverse olfactory receptor repertoires are used by this system to recognize chemicals. Among these receptors, the V1rs, encoded by a very large gene family in most mammals, are able to detect pheromones. Teleosts...

A Novel Approach for Determining Cancer Genomic Breakpoints in the Presence of Normal DNA

CDKN2A (encodes p16INK4A and p14ARF) deletion, which results in both Rb and p53 inactivation, is the most common chromosomal anomaly in human cancers. To precisely map the deletion breakpoints is important to understanding the molecular mechanism of genomic rearrangement and may also be useful for clinical applications. However, current methods for determining the breakpoint are...

ElaD, a Deubiquitinating Protease Expressed by E. coli

BackgroundUbiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins (Ubl) are designed to modify polypeptides in eukaryotes. Covalent binding of ubiquitin or Ubls to substrate proteins can be reversed by specific hydrolases. One particular set of cysteine proteases, the CE clan, which targets ubiquitin and Ubls, has homologs in eukaryotes, prokaryotes, and viruses.FindingsWe have cloned and analyzed...

Periodic Accumulation of Regulatory T Cells in the Uterus: Preparation for the Implantation of a Semi-Allogeneic Fetus?

BackgroundNaturally occurring Foxp3+regulatory T cells play an important role in the inhibition of an immunological attack of the fetus. As implantation of the fetus poses an immediate antigenic challenge, the immune system has to prepare itself for this event prior to implantation.Methodology and Principal FindingsHere, we show using quantitative RT-PCR and flow cytometry that...

Assessing Performance of Orthology Detection Strategies Applied to Eukaryotic Genomes

Orthology detection is critically important for accurate functional annotation, and has been widely used to facilitate studies on comparative and evolutionary genomics. Although various methods are now available, there has been no comprehensive analysis of performance, due to the lack of a genomic-scale ‘gold standard’ orthology dataset. Even in the absence of such datasets, the...

Robust Time Estimation Reconciles Views of the Antiquity of Placental Mammals

BackgroundMolecular studies have reported divergence times of modern placental orders long before the Cretaceous–Tertiary boundary and far older than paleontological data. However, this discrepancy may not be real, but rather appear because of the violation of implicit assumptions in the estimation procedures, such as non-gradual change of evolutionary rate and failure to correct...

Genome-Wide Studies of Histone Demethylation Catalysed by the Fission Yeast Homologues of Mammalian LSD1

In order to gain a more global view of the activity of histone demethylases, we report here genome-wide studies of the fission yeast SWIRM and polyamine oxidase (PAO) domain homologues of mammalian LSD1. Consistent with previous work we find that the two S. pombe proteins, which we name Swm1 and Swm2 (after SWIRM1 and SWIRM2), associate together in a complex. However, we find...

Epicutaneous Immunization with Type II Collagen Inhibits both Onset and Progression of Chronic Collagen-Induced Arthritis

Epicutaneous immunization is a potential non-invasive technique for antigen-specific immune-modulation. Topical application of protein antigens to barrier-disrupted skin induces potent antigen-specific immunity with a strong Th2-bias. In this study, we investigate whether the autoimmune inflammatory response of chronic collagen-induced arthritis (CCIA) in DBA/1-TCR-β Tg mice can...

Recalibrated Tree of Leaf Beetles (Chrysomelidae) Indicates Independent Diversification of Angiosperms and Their Insect Herbivores

BackgroundThe great diversity of the “Phytophaga” (weevils, longhorn beetles and leaf beetles) has been attributed to their co-radiation with the angiosperms based on matching age estimates for both groups, but phylogenetic information and molecular clock calibrations remain insufficient for this conclusion.MethodologyA phylogenetic analysis of the leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae...

Haplotype Association between Haptoglobin (Hp2) and Hp Promoter SNP (A-61C) May Explain Previous Controversy of Haptoglobin and Malaria Protection

BackgroundMalaria is one of the strongest recent selective pressures on the human genome, as evidenced by the high levels of varying haemoglobinopathies in human populations–despite the increased risk of mortality in the homozygous states. Previously, functional polymorphisms of Hp, coded by the co-dominant alleles Hp1 and Hp2, have been variously associated with several...

Phage Lambda CIII: A Protease Inhibitor Regulating the Lysis-Lysogeny Decision

The ATP-dependent protease FtsH (HflB) complexed with HflKC participates in post-translational control of the lysis-lysogeny decision of bacteriophage lambda by rapid degradation of lambda CII. Both phage-encoded proteins, the CII transcription activator and the CIII polypeptide, are required for efficient lysogenic response. The conserved CIII is both an inhibitor and substrate...

Transmission of Stress-Induced Learning Impairment and Associated Brain Gene Expression from Parents to Offspring in Chickens

BackgroundStress influences many aspects of animal behaviour and is a major factor driving populations to adapt to changing living conditions, such as during domestication. Stress can affect offspring through non-genetic mechanisms, but recent research indicates that inherited epigenetic modifications of the genome could possibly also be involved.Methodology/Principal FindingsRed...

Antibiotic Stress, Genetic Response and Altered Permeability of E. coli

BackgroundMembrane permeability is the first step involved in resistance of bacteria to an antibiotic. The number and activity of efflux pumps and outer membrane proteins that constitute porins play major roles in the definition of intrinsic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria that is altered under antibiotic exposure.Methodology/Principal FindingsHere we describe the genetic...