PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 210,336)

ADRB2 Arg16Gly Polymorphism, Lung Function, and Mortality: Results from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

BackgroundGrowing evidence suggests that the Arg16Arg genotype of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor gene may be associated with adverse effects of beta-agonist therapy. We sought to examine the association of beta-agonist use and the Arg16Gly polymorphism with lung function and mortality among participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study.Methodology and Principal...

Stability of mRNA/DNA and DNA/DNA Duplexes Affects mRNA Transcription

Nucleic acids, due to their structural and chemical properties, can form double-stranded secondary structures that assist the transfer of genetic information and can modulate gene expression. However, the nucleotide sequence alone is insufficient in explaining phenomena like intron-exon recognition during RNA processing. This raises the question whether nucleic acids are endowed...

Tetrahymena Metallothioneins Fall into Two Discrete Subfamilies

BackgroundMetallothioneins are ubiquitous small, cysteine-rich, multifunctional proteins which can bind heavy metals.Methodology/Principal FindingsWe report the results of phylogenetic and gene expression analyses that include two new Tetrahymena thermophila metallothionein genes (MTT3 and MTT5). Sequence alignments of all known Tetrahymena metallothioneins have allowed us to...

Increased Expression of the Auxiliary β2-subunit of Ventricular L-type Ca2+ Channels Leads to Single-Channel Activity Characteristic of Heart Failure

BackgroundIncreased activity of single ventricular L-type Ca2+-channels (L-VDCC) is a hallmark in human heart failure. Recent findings suggest differential modulation by several auxiliary β-subunits as a possible explanation.Methods and ResultsBy molecular and functional analyses of human and murine ventricles, we find that enhanced L-VDCC activity is accompanied by altered...

Precancerous Stem Cells Have the Potential for both Benign and Malignant Differentiation

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been identified in hematopoietic and solid tumors. However, their precursors—namely, precancerous stem cells (pCSCs) —have not been characterized. Here we experimentally define the pCSCs that have the potential for both benign and malignant differentiation, depending on environmental cues. While clonal pCSCs can develop into various types of tissue...

Global Identification and Characterization of Transcriptionally Active Regions in the Rice Genome

Genome tiling microarray studies have consistently documented rich transcriptional activity beyond the annotated genes. However, systematic characterization and transcriptional profiling of the putative novel transcripts on the genome scale are still lacking. We report here the identification of 25,352 and 27,744 transcriptionally active regions (TARs) not encoded by annotated...

Invasions and Extinctions Reshape Coastal Marine Food Webs

The biodiversity of ecosystems worldwide is changing because of species loss due to human-caused extinctions and species gain through intentional and accidental introductions. Here we show that the combined effect of these two processes is altering the trophic structure of food webs in coastal marine systems. This is because most extinctions (∼70%) occur at high trophic levels...

Mammals on the EDGE: Conservation Priorities Based on Threat and Phylogeny

Conservation priority setting based on phylogenetic diversity has frequently been proposed but rarely implemented. Here, we define a simple index that measures the contribution made by different species to phylogenetic diversity and show how the index might contribute towards species-based conservation priorities. We describe procedures to control for missing species, incomplete...

Bats Avoid Radar Installations: Could Electromagnetic Fields Deter Bats from Colliding with Wind Turbines?

Large numbers of bats are killed by collisions with wind turbines, and there is at present no direct method of reducing or preventing this mortality. We therefore determine whether the electromagnetic radiation associated with radar installations can elicit an aversive behavioural response in foraging bats. Four civil air traffic control (ATC) radar stations, three military ATC...

Tripotential Differentiation of Adherently Expandable Neural Stem (NS) Cells

BackgroundA recent study has shown that pure neural stem cells can be derived from embryonic stem (ES) cells and primary brain tissue. In the presence of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and epidermal growth factor (EGF), this population can be continuously expanded in adherent conditions. In analogy to continuously self-renewing ES cells, these cells were termed ‘NS’ cells...

Plasmids and Rickettsial Evolution: Insight from Rickettsia felis

BackgroundThe genome sequence of Rickettsia felis revealed a number of rickettsial genetic anomalies that likely contribute not only to a large genome size relative to other rickettsiae, but also to phenotypic oddities that have confounded the categorization of R. felis as either typhus group (TG) or spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae. Most intriguing was the first report from...

Selective Alpha-Particle Mediated Depletion of Tumor Vasculature with Vascular Normalization

BackgroundAbnormal regulation of angiogenesis in tumors results in the formation of vessels that are necessary for tumor growth, but compromised in structure and function. Abnormal tumor vasculature impairs oxygen and drug delivery and results in radiotherapy and chemotherapy resistance, respectively. Alpha particles are extraordinarily potent, short-ranged radiations with...

Tagging Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the BRIP1 Gene and Susceptibility to Breast and Ovarian Cancer

BackgroundBRIP1 interacts with BRCA1 and functions in regulating DNA double strand break repair pathways. Germline BRIP1 mutations are associated with breast cancer and Fanconi anemia. Thus, common variants in the BRIP1 are candidates for breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility.MethodsWe used a SNP tagging approach to evaluate the association between common variants (minor...

Ligand Bound β1 Integrins Inhibit Procaspase-8 for Mediating Cell Adhesion-Mediated Drug and Radiation Resistance in Human Leukemia Cells

BackgroundChemo- and radiotherapeutic responses of leukemia cells are modified by integrin-mediated adhesion to extracellular matrix. To further characterize the molecular mechanisms by which β1 integrins confer radiation and chemoresistance, HL60 human acute promyelocytic leukemia cells stably transfected with β1 integrin and A3 Jurkat T-lymphoma cells deficient for Fas...

Chromodynamics of Cooperation in Finite Populations

BackgroundThe basic idea of tag-based models for cooperation is that individuals recognize each other via arbitrary signals, so-called tags. If there are tags of different colors, then cooperators can always establish new signals of recognition. The resulting “chromodynamics” is a mechanism for the evolution of cooperation. Cooperators use a secret tag until they are discovered...

Adaptation of HIV-1 Depends on the Host-Cell Environment

Many viruses have the ability to rapidly develop resistance against antiviral drugs and escape from the host immune system. To which extent the host environment affects this adaptive potential of viruses is largely unknown. Here we show that for HIV-1, the host-cell environment is key to the adaptive potential of the virus. We performed a large-scale selection experiment with two...

DNA Extraction from Dry Museum Beetles without Conferring External Morphological Damage

BackgroundA large number of dry-preserved insect specimens exist in collections around the world that might be useful for genetic analyses. However, until now, the recovery of nucleic acids from such specimens has involved at least the partial destruction of the specimen. This is clearly undesirable when dealing with rare species or otherwise important specimens, such as type...

An Assessment of the Role of DNA Adenine Methyltransferase on Gene Expression Regulation in E coli

N6-Adenine methylation is an important epigenetic signal, which regulates various processes, such as DNA replication and repair and transcription. In γ-proteobacteria, Dam is a stand-alone enzyme that methylates GATC sites, which are non-randomly distributed in the genome. Some of these overlap with transcription factor binding sites. This work describes a global computational...

Evolution of Anolis Lizard Dewlap Diversity

BackgroundThe dewlaps of Anolis lizards provide a classic example of a complex signaling system whose function and evolution is poorly understood. Dewlaps are flaps of skin beneath the chin that are extended and combined with head and body movements for visual signals and displays. They exhibit extensive morphological variation and are one of two cladistic features uniting anoles...

In vivo Bioluminescence Imaging of Ca2+ Signalling in the Brain of Drosophila

Many different cells' signalling pathways are universally regulated by Ca2+ concentration [Ca2+] rises that have highly variable amplitudes and kinetic properties. Optical imaging can provide the means to characterise both the temporal and spatial aspects of Ca2+ signals involved in neurophysiological functions. New methods for in vivo imaging of Ca2+ signalling in the brain of...

TMS-Induced Cortical Potentiation during Wakefulness Locally Increases Slow Wave Activity during Sleep

BackgroundSleep slow wave activity (SWA) is thought to reflect sleep need, increasing in proportion to the length of prior wakefulness and decreasing during sleep. However, the process responsible for SWA regulation is not known. We showed recently that SWA increases locally after a learning task involving a circumscribed brain region, suggesting that SWA may reflect plastic...

Molecular Diversity of Legume Root-Nodule Bacteria in Kakadu National Park, Northern Territory, Australia

BackgroundSymbiotic relationships between leguminous plants (family Fabaceae) and nodule-forming bacteria in Australia native ecosystems remain poorly characterized despite their importance. Most studies have focused on temperate parts of the country, where the use of molecular approaches have already revealed the presence of Bradyrhizobium, Ensifer (formerly Sinorhizobium...

Proteasome Activator Enhances Survival of Huntington's Disease Neuronal Model Cells

In patients with Huntington's disease (HD), the proteolytic activity of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is reduced in the brain and other tissues. The pathological hallmark of HD is the intraneuronal nuclear protein aggregates of mutant huntingtin. We determined how to enhance UPS function and influence catalytic protein degradation and cell survival in HD. Proteasome...

Reduced Susceptibility to Interference in the Consolidation of Motor Memory before Adolescence

Are children superior to adults in consolidating procedural memory? This notion has been tied to “critical,” early life periods of increased brain plasticity. Here, using a motor sequence learning task, we show, in experiment 1, that a) the rate of learning during a training session, b) the gains accrued, without additional practice, within a 24 hours post-training interval...

Identification of uPAR-positive Chemoresistant Cells in Small Cell Lung Cancer

BackgroundThe urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and its receptor (uPAR/CD87) are major regulators of extracellular matrix degradation and are involved in cell migration and invasion under physiological and pathological conditions. The uPA/uPAR system has been of great interest in cancer research because it is involved in the development of most invasive cancer phenotypes and...