Clinical Epigenetics

https://clinicalepigeneticsjournal.biomedcentral.com

List of Papers (Total 851)

DNA methylation changes related to nutritional deprivation: a genome-wide analysis of population and in vitro data

DNA methylation has recently been identified as a mediator between in utero famine exposure and a range of metabolic and psychiatric traits. However, genome-wide analyses are scarce and cross-sectional analyses are hampered by many potential confounding factors. Moreover, causal relations are hard to identify due to the lack of controlled experimental designs. In the current...

Epigenetics in cancer therapy and nanomedicine

The emergence of nanotechnology applied to medicine has revolutionized the treatment of human cancer. As in the case of classic drugs for the treatment of cancer, epigenetic drugs have evolved in terms of their specificity and efficiency, especially because of the possibility of using more effective transport and delivery systems. The use of nanoparticles (NPs) in oncology...

Functional roles of lncRNAs and its potential mechanisms in neuropathic pain

Neuropathic pain (NP) is ranked as one of the major forms of chronic pain and emerges as a direct consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory nervous system. Despite great advances into the mechanisms of NP, clinical practice is still not satisfactory. Fortunately, progress in elucidating unique features and multiple molecular mechanisms of long non-coding RNAs...

Circadian rhythms in the three-dimensional genome: implications of chromatin interactions for cyclic transcription

Circadian rhythms orchestrate crucial physiological functions and behavioral aspects around a day in almost all living forms. The circadian clock is a time tracking system that permits organisms to predict and anticipate periodic environmental fluctuations. The circadian system is hierarchically organized, and a master pacemaker located in the brain synchronizes subsidiary clocks...

Functional roles of lncRNAs and its potential mechanisms in neuropathic pain

Neuropathic pain (NP) is ranked as one of the major forms of chronic pain and emerges as a direct consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory nervous system. Despite great advances into the mechanisms of NP, clinical practice is still not satisfactory. Fortunately, progress in elucidating unique features and multiple molecular mechanisms of long non-coding RNAs...

Prenatal adverse environment is associated with epigenetic age deceleration at birth and hypomethylation at the hypoxia-responsive EP300 gene

BackgroundObstetric complications have long been retrospectively associated with a wide range of short- and long-term health consequences, including neurodevelopmental alterations such as those observed in schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. However, prospective studies assessing fetal well-being during pregnancy tend to focus on perinatal complications as the final...

UHRF1 depletion and HDAC inhibition reactivate epigenetically silenced genes in colorectal cancer cells

BackgroundUbiquitin-like protein containing PHD and RING finger domains 1 (UHRF1) is a major regulator of epigenetic mechanisms and is overexpressed in various human malignancies. In this study, we examined the involvement of UHRF1 in aberrant DNA methylation and gene silencing in colorectal cancer (CRC).ResultsCRC cell lines were transiently transfected with siRNAs targeting...

Epigenetic silencing of miR-340-5p in multiple myeloma: mechanisms and prognostic impact

BackgroundmiR-340-5p, localized to 5q35, is a tumor suppressor miRNA implicated in multiple cancers. As a CpG island is present at the putative promoter region of its host gene, RNF130, we hypothesized that the intronic miR-340-5p is a tumor suppressor miRNA epigenetically silenced by promoter DNA methylation of its host gene in multiple myeloma.ResultsBy pyrosequencing-confirmed...

Casp8 hypomethylation and neural tube defects in association with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure

BackgroundEpidemiological studies have found that prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is associated with increased risk for neural tube defects (NTDs). Aberrant DNA methylation, excessive apoptosis, and oxidative stress have been implied as the mechanism underlying the association between PAH exposure and NTDs, respectively. However, the role of DNA...

DNA methylation at an enhancer of the three prime repair exonuclease 2 gene (TREX2) is linked to gene expression and survival in laryngeal cancer

BackgroundGenetic aberrations in DNA repair genes are linked to cancer, but less is reported about epigenetic regulation of DNA repair and functional consequences. We investigated the intragenic methylation loss at the three prime repair exonuclease 2 (TREX2) locus in laryngeal (n = 256) and colorectal cancer cases (n = 95) and in pan-cancer data from The Cancer Genome Atlas...

Epigenome-wide association study for lifetime estrogen exposure identifies an epigenetic signature associated with breast cancer risk

BackgroundIt is well established that estrogens and other hormonal factors influence breast cancer susceptibility. We hypothesized that a woman’s total lifetime estrogen exposure accumulates changes in DNA methylation, detectable in the blood, which could be used in risk assessment for breast cancer.MethodsAn estimated lifetime estrogen exposure (ELEE) model was defined using...

Gene domain-specific DNA methylation episignatures highlight distinct molecular entities of ADNP syndrome

ADNP syndrome is a rare Mendelian disorder characterized by global developmental delay, intellectual disability, and autism. It is caused by truncating mutations in ADNP, which is involved in chromatin regulation. We hypothesized that the disruption of chromatin regulation might result in specific DNA methylation patterns that could be used in the molecular diagnosis of ADNP...

Loss of Msh2 and a single-radiation hit induce common, genome-wide, and persistent epigenetic changes in the intestine

BackgroundMismatch repair (MMR)-deficiency increases the risk of colorectal tumorigenesis. To determine whether the tumors develop on a normal or disturbed epigenetic background and how radiation affects this, we quantified genome-wide histone H3 methylation profiles in macroscopic normal intestinal tissue of young radiated and untreated MMR-deficient VCMsh2LoxP/LoxP (Msh2...

Hyperglycemia affects global 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in blood genomic DNA through upregulation of SIRT6 and TETs

BackgroundAccumulating evidence suggests that epigenetic changes play key roles in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the dynamic regulation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) in diabetic peripheral blood DNA remains to be elucidated.ResultsWe collected fasting blood samples (104 patients and 108 healthy controls) and glucose...

The epigenetic clock as a predictor of disease and mortality risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Ageing is one of the principal risk factors for many chronic diseases. However, there is considerable between-person variation in the rate of ageing and individual differences in their susceptibility to disease and death. Epigenetic mechanisms may play a role in human ageing, and DNA methylation age biomarkers may be good predictors of age-related diseases and mortality risk. The...

DNA methylome profiling of granulosa cells reveals altered methylation in genes regulating vital ovarian functions in polycystic ovary syndrome

BackgroundWomen with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) manifest a host of ovarian defects like impaired folliculogenesis, anovulation, and poor oocyte quality, which grossly affect their reproductive health. Addressing the putative epigenetic anomalies that tightly regulate these events is of foremost importance in this disorder. We therefore aimed to carry out DNA methylome...

The epigenetic clock as a predictor of disease and mortality risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis

BackgroundAgeing is one of the principal risk factors for many chronic diseases. However, there is considerable between-person variation in the rate of ageing and individual differences in their susceptibility to disease and death. Epigenetic mechanisms may play a role in human ageing, and DNA methylation age biomarkers may be good predictors of age-related diseases and mortality...

Novel parent-of-origin-specific differentially methylated loci on chromosome 16

Congenital malformations associated with maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 16, upd(16)mat, resemble those observed in newborns with the lethal developmental lung disease, alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACDMPV). Interestingly, ACDMPV-causative deletions, involving FOXF1 or its lung-specific upstream enhancer at 16q24.1, arise almost...

Novel parent-of-origin-specific differentially methylated loci on chromosome 16

BackgroundCongenital malformations associated with maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 16, upd(16)mat, resemble those observed in newborns with the lethal developmental lung disease, alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACDMPV). Interestingly, ACDMPV-causative deletions, involving FOXF1 or its lung-specific upstream enhancer at 16q24.1, arise...

Promoter methylation of ADAMTS1 and BNC1 as potential biomarkers for early detection of pancreatic cancer in blood

BackgroundDespite improvements in cancer management, most pancreatic cancers are still diagnosed at an advanced stage. We have recently identified promoter DNA methylation of the genes ADAMTS1 and BNC1 as potential blood biomarkers of pancreas cancer. In this study, we validate this biomarker panel in peripheral cell-free tumor DNA of patients with pancreatic cancer...

Integrative analysis of DNA methylation in discordant twins unveils distinct architectures of systemic sclerosis subsets

BackgroundSystemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare autoimmune fibrosing disease with an incompletely understood genetic and non-genetic etiology. Defining its etiology is important to allow the development of effective predictive, preventative, and therapeutic strategies. We conducted this epigenomic study to investigate the contributions of DNA methylation to the etiology of SSc while...

Association of leukocyte DNA methylation changes with dietary folate and alcohol intake in the EPIC study

BackgroundThere is increasing evidence that folate, an important component of one-carbon metabolism, modulates the epigenome. Alcohol, which can disrupt folate absorption, is also known to affect the epigenome. We investigated the association of dietary folate and alcohol intake on leukocyte DNA methylation levels in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and...

Exploring targets of TET2-mediated methylation reprogramming as potential discriminators of prostate cancer progression

BackgroundGlobal DNA methylation alterations are hallmarks of cancer. The tumor-suppressive TET enzymes, which are involved in DNA demethylation, are decreased in prostate cancer (PCa); in particular, TET2 is specifically targeted by androgen-dependent mechanisms of repression in PCa and may play a central role in carcinogenesis. Thus, the identification of key genes targeted by...

Control of viral infections by epigenetic-targeted therapy

Epigenetics is defined as the science that studies the modifications of gene expression that are not owed to mutations or changes in the genetic sequence. Recently, strong evidences are pinpointing toward a solid interplay between such epigenetic alterations and the outcome of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection. Guided by the previous possibly promising experimental trials of...