Open Forum Infectious Diseases

List of Papers (Total 4,007)

Determination of Epstein-Barr Virus–Infected Lymphocyte Cell Types in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells as a Valuable Diagnostic Tool in Hematological Diseases

High loads of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) can be indicative of a broad spectrum of diseases, ranging from asymptomatic infection to fatal cancers.

Large Pericardial Effusion Due to Paragonimiasis in a 4-Year-Old Chinese Boy

Large pericardial effusion (PE) and bilateral pleural effusion were found in a 4-year-old Chinese boy. An emergent surgery was performed. The biopsy showed massive eosinophil infiltration. Serologic test for Paragonimus skrjabini was positive. Postoperative praziquantel therapy was effective.

Is Burnout Infectious? Understanding Drivers of Burnout and Job Satisfaction Among Academic Infectious Diseases Physicians

Burnout is pervasive in academic medicine. We administered the Maslach Burnout Inventory and an Infectious Diseases (ID) job description survey to our ID faculty. Respondents’ burnout (>50%) and job satisfaction (>90%) were each high. Although burnout may be balanced by job satisfaction, the relationship between the 2 deserves further study.

Cerebrospinal Fluid Analysis With the BioFire FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis Molecular Panel Reduces Length of Hospital Stay in Patients With Suspected Central Nervous System Infections

The Meningitis/Encephalitis Panel (MEP) is a sensitive and specific Food and Drug Administration–approved molecular diagnostic test for the 14 most common infectious etiologies of meningoencephalitis. Using a before–after controlled study design, MEP reduced length of hospital stay by 1.5 days, and this effect was mediated by the reduced time to final microbiology reporting.

A Baker’s Dozen of Top Antimicrobial Stewardship Intervention Publications in 2017

With an increasing number of antimicrobial stewardship–related articles published each year, attempting to stay current is challenging. The Southeastern Research Group Endeavor (SERGE-45) identified antimicrobial stewardship-related peer-reviewed literature that detailed an “actionable” intervention for 2017. The top 13 publications were selected using a modified Delphi technique...

The Effect of Influenza Vaccination on Mortality and Risk of Hospitalization in Patients With Heart Failure: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Influenza is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients diagnosed with heart failure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of influenza vaccination in this population in terms of reduction in all-cause mortality and rate of hospitalization.

Role of HCV Viremia in Corroborated HCV Transmission Events Within Young Adult Injecting Partnerships

Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a major cause of morbidity and mortality, is common and rising among young persons who inject drugs (PWID). Reducing the level of viremia may be an intervention, yet the impact of viremia on HCV transmission is unknown.

A Multicenter Analysis of Elvitegravir Use During Pregnancy on HIV Viral Suppression and Perinatal Outcomes

There is a knowledge gap on the clinical use of elvitegravir (EVG) during pregnancy and maternal viral suppression. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of EVG use in pregnancy on rates of HIV virologic suppression and perinatal outcomes.

Restoration of Bacterial Microbiome Composition and Diversity Among Treatment Responders in a Phase 2 Trial of RBX2660: An Investigational Microbiome Restoration Therapeutic

RBX2660 is an investigational microbiota restoration therapy in phase 3 clinical development for preventing recurrent Clostridioides difficile infections (CDIs). In a randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled phase 2B trial, RBX2660 was effective at preventing CDI recurrence. The current study was performed to characterize the fecal bacterial microbiome before and after...

Mandatory Flu Vaccine for Healthcare Workers: Not Worthwhile

In 2010, the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology published a recommendation that annual influenza vaccination of healthcare workers be made a condition of employment despite no high-level evidence to support this recommendation. A better strategy for reducing the transmission of respiratory viruses in the healthcare setting would be to encourage vaccination and reduce...

Abdominal Ultrasound for the Diagnosis of Tuberculosis Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Inpatients With World Health Organization Danger Signs

Studies of the value of abdominal ultrasound for diagnosing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated tuberculosis have major limitations.

Vibriocidal Titer and Protection From Cholera in Children

Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, is a major cause of diarrhea worldwide. Children under the age of 5 have the highest disease burden of cholera. Vibriocidal antibody responses following natural infection and oral cholera vaccination (OCV) are associated with protective immunity, but whether this holds uniformly true in young children is not known.

Predictors of Bloodstream Infection in Patients Presenting With Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Device Pocket Infection

Generator pocket infection is the most frequent presentation of cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) infection. We aim to identify predictors of underlying bloodstream infection (BSI) in patients presenting with CIED pocket infection.

Trends in Comorbid Conditions Among Medicaid Enrollees With HIV

As antiretroviral therapy has become more effective, persons with HIV live longer and develop conditions that are characteristic of older populations. Understanding changes in comorbid conditions has important implications for the complexity and cost of care, particularly for Medicaid programs and their enrollees, which comprise about 40% of all persons with HIV. Thus, our...

Clinical and Economic Outcomes of Penicillin Skin Testing as an Antimicrobial Stewardship Initiative in a Community Health System

Penicillin skin testing (PST) is a novel way to reduce the use of broad-spectrum agents in penicillin-allergic patients. This study evaluated the outcomes of patients with antimicrobials prescribed with and without PST in a community health system.

Steatosis Rates by Liver Biopsy and Transient Elastography With Controlled Attenuation Parameter in Clinical Experience of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus/HCV Coinfection in a Large US Hepatitis Clinic

Steatosis contributes to liver fibrosis in hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV coinfection. Liver biopsy (LB) is the reference standard for grading steatosis and staging fibrosis, yet recent advances in noninvasive modalities have largely supplanted LB, which may limit recognition of steatosis. We evaluated steatosis rates by LB and transient...

Safety and Immunogenicity of MF59-Adjuvanted Cell Culture–Derived A/H5N1 Subunit Influenza Virus Vaccine: Dose-Finding Clinical Trials in Adults and the Elderly

A/H5N1 influenza viruses have high pandemic potential; consequently, vaccines need to be produced rapidly. MF59® adjuvant reduces the antigen required per dose, allowing for dose sparing and more rapid vaccine availability.

Maraviroc Intensification Modulates Atherosclerotic Progression in HIV-Suppressed Patients at High Cardiovascular Risk. A Randomized, Crossover Pilot Study

Experimental CCR5 antagonism with maraviroc in atherosclerosis-prone mice and preliminary data in humans suggest an anti-atherosclerotic effect of the drug. We assessed the impact of maraviroc treatment in persons living with HIV on subclinical indicators of atherosclerosis.

Prevalence of Auto-antibodies in Pulmonary Tuberculosis

The relationship between pulmonary tuberculosis and auto-antibodies remains undefined. In a study of 75 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and 75 controls, the prevalence of auto-antibodies was assessed in a reference laboratory using a comprehensive panel with standardized methodology. No significant relationship was found between auto-antibody prevalence and pulmonary...

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) 2 Superinfection in a Patient Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy With Longstanding HIV-1 Viral Load Suppression

Dual human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) 1 and HIV-2 superinfections are rare but challenging. A HIV-1–infected patient receiving effective antiretroviral therapy was investigated for a severe CD4+ cell count decline. HIV-2 superinfection was diagnosed and genotypic test revealed mutations conferring resistance to most drug class, limiting options for treatment.

More Than Malnutrition: A Review of the Relationship Between Food Insecurity and Tuberculosis

Despite a significant reduction in tuberculosis (TB) mortality over the past decade, TB remains a leading cause of death worldwide. Food insecurity—through pathways such as malnutrition, mental health impact, and high-risk health behaviors—affects the risk of TB disease, treatment failure, and mortality. We searched the literature for studies reporting on the links between food...