International Journal for Equity in Health

https://equityhealthj.biomedcentral.com

List of Papers (Total 1,178)

Who should pay for the continuity of post-trial health care treatments?

The bioethical debate in the world on who should pay for the continuity of post-trials treatment of patients that have medical indication remains obscure and introduces uncertainties to the patients involved in the trials. The continuity of post-trial treatment was only incorporated in the 2000s by the Helsinki Declaration. The Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights...

Conceptual framework of equity-focused implementation research for health programs (EquIR)

Implementation research is increasingly used to identify common implementation problems and key barriers and facilitators influencing efficient access to health interventions. To develop and propose an equity-based framework for Implementation Research (EquIR) of health programs, policies and systems. A systematic search of models and conceptual frameworks involving equity in the...

Equitable realization of the right to health in Haiti: how household data inform health seeking behavior and financial risk protection

Though the right to health is included in Haiti’s constitution, little progress has been made to expand universal health coverage nationwide, a strategy to ensure access to health services for all, while preventing financial hardship among the poor. Realizing universal health coverage will require a better understanding of inequities in health care utilization and out-of-pocket...

Overseeing health care facilities in Shanghai, China: regulatory regime, activities and challenges of the governmental regulatory system

Government regulation has played a crucial role in ensuring the quality, safety and equity of health care. However, few empirical studies have investigated Chinese governmental oversight of health care facilities in terms of regulatory arrangements and approaches. This study aims to explore the regulatory regime and main activities within the health sector in Shanghai, a city...

Spatial accessibility to pediatric primary care in Philadelphia: an area-level cross sectional analysis

Pediatric primary care visits are a foundational element in the health maintenance of children. Differential access may be a driver of racial inequities in health. We hypothesized that pediatric primary care accessibility would be lowest in neighborhoods with higher proportion of non-Hispanic Black residents. Annual ratios (2008–2016) of providers to pediatric population were...

General practice for the poor and specialist services for the rich: inequality evidence from a cross-sectional survey on Hangzhou residents, China

Inequalities in health care services are becoming an increasing concern in the world including in China. This study measured the income-related inequalities of residents in Hangzhou of China in access to general practice and specialist care and identified socioeconomic factors associated with such inequalities. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted on 1048...

Assessing evidence of interventions addressing inequity among migrant populations: a two-stage systematic review

Everyone has the right to achieve the standard of health and well-being. Migrants are considered as vulnerable populations due to the lack of access to health services and financial protection in health. Several interventions have been developed to improve migrant population health, but little is known about whether these interventions have considered the issue of equity as part...

Health care utilization and affordability among older people following China’s 2009 health reform -- evidence from CHARLS pilot study

In 2009, China unveiled an ambitious national health care reform program, with the goal of providing equitable and affordable basic health care for everyone. This study was intended to partially fill the knowledge gap in understanding of the demand-side impact on health care utilization and affordability among older people in Zhejiang and Gansu provinces of China. We used two...

Sub-Saharan African immigrant women's experiences of (lack of) access to appropriate healthcare in the public health system in the Basque Country, Spain

Immigrant populations face diverse barriers to accessing appropriate healthcare services on several levels. In the Basque Country, Sub-Saharan African women were identified as facing the largest barriers to access them. The aim of the study is to analyse Sub-Saharan African immigrant women's perceptions and experiences of access to appropriate healthcare in the public health...

Social integration and mental health - a decomposition approach to mental health inequalities between the foreign-born and native-born in Sweden

The increasing mental health inequalities between native- and foreign-born persons in Sweden is an important public health issue. Improving social integration has been stressed as a key strategy to combat this development. While a vast amount of studies have confirmed the importance of social integration for good mental health, less is known about the role of different types of...

Challenges to hypertension and diabetes management in rural Uganda: a qualitative study with patients, village health team members, and health care professionals

The prevalence of hypertension and diabetes are expected to increase in sub-Saharan Africa over the next decade. Some studies have documented that lifestyle factors and lack of awareness are directly influencing the control of these diseases. Yet, few studies have attempted to understand the barriers to control of these conditions in rural settings. The main objective of this...

Benefit incidence analysis in public health facilities in India: utilization and benefits at the national and state levels

Benefit Incidence Analysis (BIA) is used to understand the distribution of health care utilization and spending in comparison to income distribution. The results can illustrate how effectively governments allocate limited resources towards meeting the needs of the poor. In analyzing the distribution of public spending on inpatient, outpatient, and deliveries, this paper...

Facilitators and barriers of sociodemographic data collection in Canadian health care settings: a multisite case study evaluation

Despite growing awareness of the importance of social determinants of health, research remains limited about the implementation of sociodemographic data collection in Canadian health care settings. Little is known about the salient contextual factors that enable or hinder collection and use of social information to improve quality of care in clinical settings. This study examines...

Changes in income-related inequalities in cervical cancer screening during the Spanish economic crisis: a decomposition analysis

Cervical cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers, but it may be prevented by early detection. Social inequalities in the use of cytology testing have been identified in the literature. However, the degree of income-related inequality has not been quantified and determinants of inequality changes during the economic crisis remain unknown. Using the Spanish National Health...

A two-stage spatial allocation model for elderly healthcare facilities in large-scale affordable housing communities: a case study in Nanjing City

As the proportion of elderly residents living in large-scale affordable housing communities (LAHCs) increases in China, serious problems have become apparent related to the spatial allocation of elderly healthcare facilities (EHFs), e.g., insufficient provision and inaccessibility. To address these issues, this study developed a location allocation model for EHFs to ensure...

Equity of primary care service delivery for low income “sicker” adults across 10 OECD countries

Despite significant investments to support primary care internationally, income-based inequities in access to quality health care are present in many high-income countries. This study aims to determine whether low- and middle-income groups are more likely to report poor quality of primary care (PC) than high-income groups cross-nationally. The 2011 Commonwealth Fund Telephone...

Assessing changes in social determinants of health inequalities in South Africa : a decomposition analysis

Despite various policy interventions that have targeted reductions in socio-economic inequalities in health and health care in post-Apartheid South Africa, evidence suggests that not much has really changed. In particular, health inequalities, which are strongly linked to social determinants of health (SDH), persist. This study, thus, examines how changes in the SDH have impacted...

How do macro-level structural determinants affect inequalities in mental health? – a systematic review of the literature

In Europe and elsewhere there is rising concern about inequality in health and increased prevalence of mental ill-health. Structural determinants such as welfare state arrangements may impact on levels of mental health and social inequalities. This systematic review aims to assess the current evidence on whether structural determinants are associated with inequalities in mental...

Trends in health resource disparities in primary health care institutions in Liaoning Province in Northeast China

The allocation of health resources in primary health care institutions (PHCI) is crucial to health reform. China has recently implemented many reform measures emphasizing the provision of primary health care services, with equity as one of the major goals. The aim of this study was to analyze the quantity, quality, and distribution of health resources in Liaoning Province from...

Area deprivation and attachment to a general practitioner through centralized waiting lists: a cross-sectional study in Quebec, Canada

Access to primary healthcare is an important social determinant of health and having a regular general practitioner (GP) has been shown to improve access. In Canada, socio-economically disadvantaged patients are more likely to be unattached (i.e. not have a regular GP). In the province of Quebec, where over 30% of the population is unattached, centralized waiting lists were...

Adjusting a mainstream weight management intervention for people with intellectual disabilities: a user centred approach

People with intellectual disabilities (ID) may not be able to access and respond to uniformly delivered health interventions. Public bodies have a legal duty to make ‘reasonable adjustments’ to policies and practices to provide fair access and treatment for people with ID. This study aimed to identify adjustments to the Slimming World weight management programme to improve...

A survey of availability, price and affordability of essential medicines from 2011 to 2016 in Chinese secondary and tertiary hospitals

Essential medicines are those drugs that satisfy the priority health care needs of the population and help with functioning healthcare systems. Although many countries have formulated an essential medicine list, almost half of the global population still lack regular access to essential medicines. Research about the initiation of National Essential Medicines Policy in Chinese...

Moving towards universal health coverage: engaging non-state providers

This editorial provides an overview of the special issue “Moving towards UHC: engaging non-state providers”. It begins by describing the rationale underlying the Alliance’s choice of a research program addressing issues of non-state providers and briefly discusses the research process this entailed. This is followed by a summary of the findings and key messages of each of the...

Emergence of three general practitioner contracting-in models in South Africa: a qualitative multi-case study

The general practitioner contracting initiative (GPCI) is a health systems strengthening initiative piloted in the first phase of national health insurance (NHI) implementation in South Africa as it progresses towards universal health coverage (UHC). GPCI aimed to address the shortage of doctors in the public sector by contracting-in private sector general practitioners (GPs) to...

Government resource contributions to the private-not-for-profit sector in Uganda: evolution, adaptations and implications for universal health coverage

A case study was prepared examining government resource contributions (GRCs) to private-not-for-profit (PNFP) providers in Uganda. It focuses on Primary Health Care (PHC) grants to the largest non-profit provider network, the Uganda Catholic Medical Bureau (UCMB), from 1997 to 2015. The framework of complex adaptive systems was used to explain changes in resource contributions...