# Tribology Letters

## List of Papers (Total 180)

#### The Development and Application of a Scuffing Test Based on Contra-rotation

Scuffing is a surface failure mode that occurs in sliding–rolling contacts subjected to high loads and high sliding speeds, such as those in gears and cam-followers. Owing to its sudden onset, rapid progression and dependence on both fluid and boundary lubricant films, scuffing is difficult to study in a repeatable manner. This paper describes further development of a recently...

#### Film Thickness and Friction of ZDDP Tribofilms

Tribofilm formation by several zinc dialkyl- and diaryldithiophosphate (ZDDP) solutions in thin film rolling-sliding conditions has been investigated. A primary, a secondary alkyl and a mixed alkyl ZDDP show similar rates of film formation and generate films typically 150 nm thick. Another secondary ZDDP forms a tribofilm much faster and the film is partially lost after extended...

#### The Formation of a Modified Surface Layer on Elastomeric Materials

Surface modification of an elastomer may be formed during sliding contact with a rigid counter surface. This alteration leads to a change of mechanical properties at the surface and as a result a change in frictional behavior. Therefore, investigations related to the formation of a modified surface layer on elastomers and its effect on friction are of importance. In the present...

#### Thermal Conductivity and Flash Temperature

The thermal conductivity is a key property in determining the friction-induced temperature rise on the surface of sliding components. In this study, a Frequency Domain Thermoreflectance (FDTR) method is used to measure the thermal conductivity of a range of tribological materials (AISI 52100 bearing steel, silicon nitride, sapphire, tungsten carbide and zirconia). The FDTR...

#### On the Non-trivial Origin of Atomic-Scale Patterns in Friction Force Microscopy

Friction between two surfaces is due to nano- and micro-asperities at the interface that establish true contact and are responsible for the energy dissipation. To understand the friction mechanism, often single-asperity model experiments are conducted in atomic-force microscopes. Here, we show that the conventional interpretation of the typical results of such experiments, based...

#### Feeling Smooth: Psychotribological Probing of Molecular Composition

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether smooth surfaces varying in surface chemistry could be perceptually distinguished with the sense of touch. A set of ten glass surfaces was prepared which varied systematically in terms of the molecular composition of a thin coating of low topography. The contact angle, contact angle hysteresis, and surface energy were evaluated as...

#### Characterization of the Adsorption Mechanism of Manganese Phosphate Conversion Coating Derived Tribofilms

Casing connections in the oil and gas industry are typically coated with zinc and/or manganese phosphate for corrosion protection during storage. The presence of phosphate coatings is also known to give beneficial tribological performance. The coating allows the system to run without problems long after it is worn off. This is because of two mechanisms. Glaze layer formation on...

#### Hydrodynamic Friction of Viscosity-Modified Oils in a Journal Bearing Machine

The friction properties of a range of viscosity modifier-containing oils in an engine bearing have been studied in the hydrodynamic regime using a combined experimental and modelling approach. The viscometric properties of these oils were previously measured and single equations derived to describe how their viscosities vary with temperature and shear rate (Marx et al. Tribol...

Soot is known to cause high wear in engine components and this is a problem with engine oils between extended drain intervals. Although several wear mechanisms have been suggested, exact soot-induced wear mechanisms are still not fully understood. This study aims to investigate the additive adsorption mechanism (specifically anti-wear additive) on carbon black (CB) particles (as...

#### Elastohydrodynamic Films Under Periodic Load Variation: An Experimental and Theoretical Approach

The elastohydrodynamic lubrication regime occurs in systems where large elastic deformations, the hydrodynamic action of a converging wedge and eventually large variation of viscosity of the fluid combine to determine the formation of a continuous fluid film that separates the solid surfaces. Experimental and theoretical works, over the past few decades, have elucidated the role...

#### On the Proportionality Between Area and Load in Line Contacts

The relative contact area of rough surface contacts is known to increase linearly with reduced pressure, with proportionality factor $$\kappa$$. In its common definition, the reduced pressure contains the root-mean-square gradient (RMSG) of the surface. Although easy to measure, the RMSG of the entire surface does not coincide, at small loads, with the RMSG over the actual...

#### Threshold Maps for Inclusion-Initiated Micro-Cracks and White Etching Areas in Bearing Steel: The Role of Impact Loading and Surface Sliding

Wind turbine gearbox (WTG) bearings can fail prematurely, significantly affecting wind turbine operational availability and the cost of energy production. The current most commonly accepted theory of failure mechanism is that the bearing subsurface is weakened by white etching crack (WEC) networks that eventually lead to the flaking away of material from the bearing surface...

#### On the Role of Material Transfer in Friction Between Metals: Initial Phenomena and Effects of Roughness and Boundary Lubrication in Sliding Between Aluminium and Tool Steels

In the absence of a lubricant, the friction we measure in sliding contact between metals is typically high and quite erratic, with rapid fluctuations. If we filter out these rapid fluctuations, we can typically also notice slower trends, which can lead to quite dramatic friction changes. Unless careful studies are performed, the cause to this behaviour cannot be understood. How...

#### Experimental Evaluation of Galling Under Press Hardening Conditions

Severe adhesion, also referred to as galling, is a critical problem in press hardening, especially in stamping tools used for hot forming of Al–Si-coated ultra-high strength steel. Galling is known to develop rapidly on the tool surface and it negatively affects the quality of the formed products. Earlier research on this topic has focused on the galling initiation. However...

#### Shear Thinning and Hydrodynamic Friction of Viscosity Modifier-Containing Oils. Part II: Impact of Shear Thinning on Journal Bearing Friction

In a companion paper, the temporary shear thinning behaviour of a series of viscosity-modifier (VM)-containing blends was studied over a wide shear rate and temperature range [Marx et al. in Tribol Lett,  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11249-018-1039-5]. It was found that for almost all VMs the resulting data could be collapsed on a single viscosity versus reduced strain rate curve...

#### Shear Thinning and Hydrodynamic Friction of Viscosity Modifier-Containing Oils. Part I: Shear Thinning Behaviour

Viscosity versus shear rate curves have been measured up to 107 s−1 for a range of VM solutions and fully formulated oils of known composition at several temperatures. This shows large differences in the shear thinning tendencies of different engine oil VMs. It has been found that viscosity versus shear rate data at different temperatures can be collapsed onto a single master...

#### Multiscale Friction in Lubricant-Surface Systems for High-Performance Transmissions Under Mild Wear

The lubricant-surface system is complex in nature and can significantly affect the frictional performance of high-performance transmission systems. The complexity stems from the coupled mechanical and chemical phenomena that occur at the interfacial tooth conjunctions. A combined analytical and precision experimental approach is presented to analyse the salient parameters of the...

#### Industrial Gear Oils: Tribological Performance and Subsurface Changes

This study examined the tribological performance of three gear oils (Oils A, B and C), in relation to surface and microstructural changes. Oil A contains molybdenum dithiophosphate friction modifier, Oil B contains amine molybdate combined with zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate antiwear additive, while Oil C contains phosphonate and a commercial gear oil package. Following sliding...

#### A Novel Surface Texture Shape for Directional Friction Control

An experimental study is presented to evaluate the influence of anisotropically shaped textures on the behaviour of sliding friction and sensitivity to sliding direction. The plate samples were textured with triangular sloped dimples using an ultrafast laser surface texturing technique. Reciprocating cylinder-on-plate tests were conducted with steel sliding pairs using mineral...

#### Effects of Using Alternative Extreme Pressure (EP) and Anti-Wear (AW) Additives with Oxy-Nitrided Samples

Oxy-nitriding is a widely used industrial process aiming to improve the tribological properties and performance of components. Previous studies have shown the effectiveness of the treatment with friction and wear performance, but very few have focussed on optimising this behaviour. The lubrication properties of several EP and AW additives were examined to investigate their...

#### Extending the Double-Hertz Model to Allow Modeling of an Adhesive Elliptical Contact

An adhesive elliptical contact is normally found in microscale applications that involve cylindrical solids, crossing at an angle between 0° and 90°. Currently, only one model is available to describe the elliptical contact’s surface interaction: the approximate Johnson–Kendall–Roberts (JKR) model which is limited to soft materials. In this paper, a new adhesive elliptical model...