Current Tropical Medicine Reports

https://link.springer.com/journal/40475

List of Papers (Total 77)

Difficult but Not Impossible: in Search of an Anti-Candida Vaccine

Purpose of ReviewPervasive fungal infection among the immunocompromised population, in conjunction with a lack of effective treatment options, has demanded further scrutiny. Millions of people are still dying annually from fungal infections. While existing treatment for these fungal infections exists, it is difficult to administer without adverse effects in the immunocompromised...

Current Gaps and Needs for Increasing Access to Healthcare for People with Chagas Disease in the USA

Purpose of ReviewIn the USA, fewer than 1% of people with Chagas disease (CD) are diagnosed and treated. Patients and physicians confront significant barriers to initiating testing and treatment, which are not systematically available in the US health care system. What are these barriers and how can they be overcome? We discuss the broader challenges and state-level dynamics of...

Buruli Ulcer: a Review of the Current Knowledge

Purpose of the ReviewBuruli ulcer (BU) is a necrotizing and disabling cutaneous disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, one of the skin-related neglected tropical diseases (skin NTDs). This article aims to review the current knowledge of this disease and challenges ahead.Recent FindingsAround 60,000 cases of BU have been reported from over 33 countries between 2002 and 2017...

The Role of Climate in the Epidemiology of Melioidosis

Purpose of ReviewMelioidosis epidemiology is susceptible to climate change through direct and indirect effects on human encounter with the causative agent, Burkholderia pseudomallei. This review describes the current depth of knowledge and recent advances in the understanding of this relationship and applies it to observations of melioidosis in Western Australia.Recent...

Surveillance of Arthropod-Borne Viruses and Their Vectors in the Mediterranean and Black Sea Regions Within the MediLabSecure Network

Purpose of ReviewArboviruses, viruses transmitted by arthropods such as mosquitoes, ticks, sandflies, and fleas are a significant threat to public health because of their epidemic and zoonotic potential. The geographical distribution of mosquito-borne diseases such as West Nile (WN), Rift Valley fever (RVF), Dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika has expanded over the last decades...

Epidemiology of Leptospirosis in Costa Rica 2011–2015

Purpose of Review Leptospirosis is a global spirochete causing chronic renal disease that is increasing in Costa Rica. This paper identifies the prevalence and risk factors of leptospirosis in Costa Rica between the years of 2011–2015. Recent Findings Clinical cases of leptospirosis in Costa Rica demonstrated various symptoms: from asymptomatic diseases to severe cases of kidney...

Threat of Zika Virus to the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Olympic and Paralympic Games

Purpose of ReviewThe emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas has been met with growing concern in the midst of the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Olympic and Paralympic games. This review aims to evaluate the precedence of other arboviruses epidemics in Brazil, historical precedence of large international events in the setting of mosquito-borne disease epidemics, and recent seasonal...

The Intestinal Bacterial Microbiome and E. histolytica Infection

Entamoeba histolytica, the etiological agent of amebiasis, is a significant cause of pediatric diarrhea in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The clinical outcome of an E. histolytica exposure varies enormously and can present as diarrhea, dysentery, or amebic liver abscess. Host and parasite factors likely contribute to the outcome of infection with the parasite, but do not...

Ecology of Tularemia in Central US Endemic Region

Tularemia is a zoonotic disease that occurs in the Northern Hemisphere caused by the gammabacterium Francisella tularensis. The most severe form of human tularemia occurs in the central USA and involves a rabbit enzootic cycle, ixodid tick vectors, and F. tularensis subspecies tularensis genotype A1. Enzootic tularemia is thought to have a spring-summer seasonality corresponding...

Rickettsia felis, an Emerging Flea-Borne Rickettsiosis

Rickettsia felis is an emerging insect-borne rickettsial pathogen and the causative agent of flea-borne spotted fever. First described as a human pathogen from the USA in 1991, R. felis is now identified throughout the world and considered a common cause of fever in Africa. The cosmopolitan distribution of this pathogen is credited to the equally widespread occurrence of cat...

Strongyloidiasis: Risk and Healthcare Access for Latin American Immigrants Living in the United States

This commentary discusses our current understanding about Strongyloides stercoralis prevalence rates in the United States (USA) in the context of healthcare delivery to immigrants from Latin America. A literature search reveals that while prevalence rates in Latin American countries are not well documented, the rates in Latin American immigrants living in the USA are even less...

Wolbachia Biocontrol Strategies for Arboviral Diseases and the Potential Influence of Resident Wolbachia Strains in Mosquitoes

Arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes are a major cause of human disease worldwide. The absence of vaccines and effective vector control strategies has resulted in the need for novel mosquito control strategies. The endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia has been proposed to form the basis for an effective mosquito biocontrol strategy. Resident strains of Wolbachia inhibit viral...

Human Trichuriasis: Diagnostics Update

Trichuris trichiura infection is part of the so-called neglected tropical diseases, given the little interest and resources spent in developing novel diagnostic tools and treatment to detect and fight this disease. One of the main neglected aspects of trichuriasis pertains to diagnostic methods, which are currently based on copro-parasitological methods and burdened by low...

Human Ascariasis: Diagnostics Update

Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) infect over one billion people worldwide. Ascariasis may mimic a number of conditions, and individual clinical diagnosis often requires a thorough work-up. Kato-Katz thick smears are the standard detection method for Ascaris and, despite low sensitivity, are often used for mapping and monitoring and evaluation of national control programmes...

Invited Commentary on Growth and Development in Children with Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infections

Gastrointestinal parasites including soil-transmitted helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworms-Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale), Strongyloides stercoralis, and intestinal protozoa (Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, and Entamoeba histolytica) are among the most widespread infectious organisms disproportionately affecting children...

Human Ascariasis Increases the Allergic Response and Allergic Symptoms

Ascariasis is still very prevalent; one billion people are infected all around the world. In rural areas, severe ascariasis impairs the immune responses to natural infections and vaccination programs. However, in urbanized areas, improved hygiene conditions and periodic anthelmintic treatments have led to light forms of ascariasis, where parasite-induced immunosuppressive effects...

Global Health and Tropical Medicine in the Twenty-First Century: A Renewed Interest in the Understanding and the Control of Helminth Infections

The twenty-first century has shown an expansion and renewed excitement in global health, and tropical medicine is one of the critical drivers leading this global health phenomenon. Among the tropical diseases, helminth infections rank first in the list of diseases causing the highest disability adjusted life years. Because of the importance of helminth infections and their impact...

Human Trichuriasis: Whipworm Genetics, Phylogeny, Transmission and Future Research Directions

Human trichuriasis is a neglected tropical disease which affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide and is particularly prevalent among children living in areas where sanitation is poor. This review examines the current knowledge on the taxonomy, genetics and phylogeography of human Trichuris and its relationship to whipworm parasites in other host species. The evidence for...

Update on Treatment and Resistance of Human Trichuriasis

Trichuris trichiura is a common soil-transmitted helminthic pathogen with considerable impact on human health. To achieve appropriate control of trichuriasis from a public health perspective, effective treatments and regular education of populations most at risk such as children and pregnant women are essential. Currently available drugs show however only unsatisfying cure rates...

Treatment of Cryptosporidium: What We Know, Gaps, and the Way Forward

Cryptosporidiosis is increasingly recognized as an important global health concern. While initially reported in immunocompromised patients such as AIDS patients, cryptosporidiosis has now been documented as a major cause of childhood diarrhea and an important factor in childhood malnutrition. Currently, nitazoxanide is the only proven anti-parasitic treatment for Cryptosporidium...

Challenges and Innovative Strategies to Interrupt Cryptosporidium Transmission in Resource-Limited Settings

In addition to Cryptosporidium being recognized as a very important cause of morbidity and mortality among humans, it is also an important economical problem with hundreds of outbreaks reported throughout the world every year and in agriculture where it affects mostly young animals. Transmission of Cryptosporidium is often by oral route through water and food. Although...