Current Molecular Biology Reports

http://link.springer.com/journal/40610

List of Papers (Total 50)

Novel and Conventional Preclinical Models to Investigate Bone Metastasis

Purpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to emphasize the use of bone metastasis models in preclinical research. As classical models have been thoroughly discussed in recent reviews, we here highlight the most important aspects from these papers with a special focus on novel models developed during the past 5 years.Recent FindingsPreclinical mouse models to study bone...

Molecular Interaction of Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue with Energy Metabolism

Purpose of ReviewThe last decade has seen a resurgence in the study of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) across diverse fields such as metabolism, haematopoiesis, skeletal biology and cancer. Herein, we review the most recent developments of BMAT research in both humans and rodents, including the distinct nature of BMAT; the autocrine, paracrine and endocrine interactions between...

The Potential of microRNAs for Stem Cell-based Therapy for Degenerative Skeletal Diseases

Purpose of ReviewDegenerative skeletal disorders including osteoarthritis (OA) and osteoporosis (OP) are the result of attenuation of tissue regeneration and lead to painful conditions with limited treatment options. Preventative measures to limit the onset of OA and OP remain a significant unmet clinical need. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to be involved in the differentiation of...

Molecular Mechanisms of Enzalutamide Resistance in Prostate Cancer

Purpose of Review Compensatory mechanisms leading to increased androgen receptor expression and activity after androgen ablation or anti-androgen treatment have been identified in prostate cancer. After hydroxyflutamide and bicalutamide were used in therapy of prostate cancer over many years, novel anti-androgen enzalutamide showed improved clinical activity. However...

The Role of the Calcitonin Peptide Family in Prostate Cancer and Bone Metastasis

Purpose of Review This study is to highlight recent discoveries associated with the role of calcitonin peptide family and their receptors in prostate cancer progression and bone metastasis. Recent Findings Studies have linked adrenomedullin (AM), calcitonin (CT) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) to the spread of prostate tumours to the bone. AM can induce a metastatic...

Assembly of Dynamic P450-Mediated Metabolons—Order Versus Chaos

Purpose of Review We provide an overview of the current knowledge on cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism organized as metabolons and factors that facilitate their stabilization. Essential parameters will be discussed including those that are commonly disregarded using the dhurrin metabolon from Sorghum bicolor as a case study. Recent Findings Sessile plants control their...

Can Biofortified Crops Help Attain Food Security?

Malnutrition, or “hidden hunger,” continues to linger throughout the developing world. This is partially the result of a lack of access to a diversified diet. A burgeoning human population and the advent of climate change have resulted in the forecast of increases in food insecurity for at risk populations. The following report describes the use of agricultural biotechnology to...

Plant-Based Vaccine for Livestock: Key Points to Unleash Platform Translation in Developing Countries

Purpose of review Ten years ago the first plant-based vaccine was licensed (DowAgrosciences). It was only 20 years after the first report of a recombinant protein obtained through plant transformation technology. Back then, this vaccine was perceived as the first of an unlimited list of innovative products of a flourishing platform. Unexpectedly, since then, no other veterinary...

Strategies and First Advances in the Development of Prevascularized Bone Implants

Despite the great regenerative potential of human bone, large bone defects are a serious condition. Commonly, large defects are caused by trauma, bone disease, malignant tumor removal, and infection or medication-related osteonecrosis. Large defects necessitate clinical treatment in the form of autologous bone transplantation or implantation of biomaterials as well as the...

Human Bone Xenografts: from Preclinical Testing for Regenerative Medicine to Modeling of Diseases

Xenografting involves the transplantation of human tissue or cells into animal models and is an important tool for regenerative medicine research. Implantation of engineered human bone tissues into animal models, for example, is performed in preclinical evaluations of product safety and efficacy. With the advent of improved experimental methodologies, these models are further...

Connective Tissue Degeneration: Mechanisms of Palmar Fascia Degeneration (Dupuytren’s Disease)

Dupuytren’s disease is a connective tissue disorder of the hand causing excessive palmar fascial fibrosis with associated finger contracture and disability. The aetiology of the disease is heterogeneous, with both genetic and environmental components. The connective tissue is abnormally infiltrated by myofibroblasts that deposit collagen and other extracellular matrix proteins...

Human Pluripotent Stem Cells: Advances in Chondrogenic Differentiation and Articular Cartilage Regeneration

Articular chondral lesions are major risk factors for the development of osteoarthritis (OA). Multiple adult cell-based approaches have been attempted to restore hyaline cartilage and prevent progressive degeneration; however, the formation of permanent cartilage has not yet been achieved. A scalable source of cartilage progenitors may have far-reaching potential to advance joint...

Clinical Factors, Disease Parameters, and Molecular Therapies Affecting Osseointegration of Orthopedic Implants

Total hip and knee arthroplasty are effective interventions for management of end-stage arthritis. Indeed, about seven million Americans are currently living with artificial hip and knee joints. The majority of these individuals, however, will outlive their implants and require revision surgeries, mostly due to poor implant osseointegration and aseptic loosening. Revisions are...

Control of Bone Homeostasis by the Wnt Inhibitor Sclerostin

Wnt signaling is an important osteogenic pathway regulating skeletal development and maintenance, and sclerostin is a potent extracellular inhibitor of this process. New anabolic skeletal therapies are needed to treat osteoporosis in the aging population, and pre-clinical and clinical studies demonstrate that targeting sclerostin with neutralizing antibodies releases an...

Current Concepts of Using Pigs as a Source for Beta-Cell Replacement Therapy of Type 1 Diabetes

The global prevalence of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is rapidly increasing. In spite of major improvements in insulin treatment regimens and diabetes technology (e.g., artificial pancreas devices), glucose control remains problematic in a substantial proportion of diabetic patients. Those patients may benefit from beta-cell replacement therapies. Allotransplantation of...

Perspectives on Animal Models Utilized for the Research and Development of Regenerative Therapies for Articular Cartilage

Animal models are integral and indispensable for biomedical research and regenerative medicine studies, as these provide invaluable information for systemically evaluating the potential risks and efficacy of newly developed biomaterials, drugs, medical devices, and therapeutic modalities, prior to initiation of human clinical trials. Nevertheless, it is important to be aware of...

Critical Sized Mandibular Defect Regeneration in Preclinical In Vivo Models

Restoration of critical sized defects of the mandible still poses a major problem in the field of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. The current gold standard of treatment relies on the use of autologous grafts and therefore, has associated disadvantages such as donor site morbidity and insufficient bone for prosthetic rehabilitation. Recent advances in the fields of bone tissue...

Mouse Models in Bone Fracture Healing Research

Bone fracture healing is a tightly regulated process involving many cell types, mediators, and signaling pathways and is still not well understood. During decades, bone healing was mainly studied in large animals, including dogs, rabbits, or sheep. In recent years, mice have become increasingly popular as a model organism for fracture healing research. The benefits of mice are...

Paracrine Signaling by Extracellular Vesicles via Osteoblasts

Extracellular vesicles (EVs), spherical bilayered proteolipids, behave as paracrine effectors since they are released from cells to deliver signals to other cells. They control a diverse range of biological processes by transferring proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids between cells and are secreted by a wide spectrum of cell types and are found in various biological fluids. EVs...

Prenatal Maternal Stress and Epigenetics: Review of the Human Research

Alterations of the uterine environment might induce long-lasting effects on offspring outcomes in later life. Epigenetics has been considered as one of the most important mechanisms involved in such long-term effects of exposure to stress in utero. In the present review, we summarize a growing body of literature focused on human research, exploring the association between fetal...

Histone Modifications in Ageing and Lifespan Regulation

Ageing has been associated with structural changes in chromatin. At the molecular level, multiple histone modifications with established epigenetic mechanisms have been connected to the regulation of lifespan. Here, we review the changes in histone modification profiles during ageing and their possible functional contribution to ageing and lifespan regulation. We brief the state...