Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/cjidmm/

List of Papers (Total 2,540)

Adjuvants for a New Generation of Vaccines

Subunit antigens of viruses and other infectious agents in their natural configuration can be produced by recombinant DNA technology. To elicit protective immunity such antigens have to be administered with adjuvants that elicit cell-mediated immunity, including genetically restricted cytotoxicity, and that produce high affinity antibodies of protective isotypes. Antibodies of...

Cytomegalovirus Pathogenesis in Transplantation

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the immunocompromised; however, even within this group of patients, infection with CMV is not synonymous with disease. A number of factors affect the pathogenicity of the virus. An understanding of the mechanisms by which CMV causes disease at different sites in the body, and of how U1at might...

Supra-Additive Expression of Interleukin-6, Interleukin-8 and Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Following Coinfection with Chlamydia pneumoniae and Cytomegalovirus as a Novel Link between Infection and Atherosclerosis

BACKGROUND: Chlamydia pneumoniae and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) may be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Prospective studies indicate an increased risk for cardiovascular events in patients with evidence of multiple infections.

A Review of 11 Years of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Blood Isolates at a Tertiary Care Institute in Canada

BACKGROUND: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia has emerged as a significant nosocomial pathogen with increasing resistance to trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole (TMP/SMX), the current drug of choice for treatment.

Recognizing Cognitive and Psychiatric Changes in the Post-Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Era

Amid numerous complications that plague the health and quality of life of people living with HIV, neurocognitive and psychiatric illnesses pose unique challenges. While there remains uncertainty with respect to the pathophysiology surrounding these disorders, their adverse implications are increasingly recognized. Left undetected, they have the potential to significantly impact...

Etiology of Cervicitis and Treatment with Minocycline

Objective: To evaluate the etiology of cervicitis using the recommended Canadian definition, and to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of seven days of minocycline treatment, 100 versus 200 mg at bedtime.

The Importance of Surveillance in the Control of Influenza

Surveillance of influenza has important practical uses for controlling the spread and the severity of epidemic episodes. The participation of sentinel practitioners directly involved in primary patient care is essential and can be promoted by active surveillance networks working in real time with a strong coordinating structure. The Groupes régionaux d’observation de la Grippe...

Evaluation and Follow-Up of Infectious Tuberculosis at the University of Ottawa

A case of active infectious pulmonary tuberculosis (tb) in a recent immigrant to Canada was identified at the University of Ottawa. The student was attending classes regularly and coughing for six months before the diagnosis of infectious pulmonary tb was made. Investigation carried out by the Ottawa-Carleton Health Department identified 871 student contacts. Of the 871 contacts...

Comparative Activity of Cefepime with Several Antimicrobials against Aerobic Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Organisms Isolated from Patients across Canada in 1993

To compare the activity of cefepime, a fourth-generation cephalosporin, with several available antimicrobials, in vitro susceptibility studies were carried out on bacteria commonly associated with various infections, including sepsis. Ten tertiary care hospital laboratories in six provinces provided 1276 clinically relevant isolates of aerobic Gram-negative bacilli and Gram...

Bacterial Peritonitis Caused by Listeria monocytogenes: Case Report and Review of the literature

Although Listeria monocytogenes has been isolated from the gastrointestinal tract, it is an infrequent cause of bacterial peritonitis. Since 1963 only 23 cases of peritonitis caused by listeria have been reported. This report describes another case in a patient with cirrhosis and chronic renal failure and presents a review of the literature. Most (16) of the previous cases were...

Survey of Physicians Concerning the Use of Chest Radiography in the Diagnosis of Pneumonia in Out-Patients

OBJECTIVE: To determine how physicians use chest radiography in the diagnosis of pneumonia in ambulatory patients.

An Outbreak of Foodborne Botulism in Ontario

Botulism is a rare paralytic illness resulting from a potent neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum. Botulism in Canada is predominately due to C botulinum type E and affects mainly the First Nations and Inuit populations. The most recent outbreak of botulism in Ontario was in Ottawa in 1991 and was caused by C botulinum type A. We report an outbreak of foodborne type B...

Physical Plant Design and Engineering Controls to Reduce Hospital-Acquired Infections

The importance of the environment as a reservoir for microorganisms implicated in disease transmission in the hospital setting has been increasingly recognized, especially with respect to dialysis units, ventilation in specialized areas, and the proper use of disinfectants (1). Inherent within the environmental setting is the importance of physical plant design. Several studies...

Colistin: The phoenix Arises

The polymyxins were discovered in the 1940s and represent a group of closely related polypeptide antibiotics obtained from Bacillus polymyxa, which was originally isolated from soil (1,2). Although they have been used extensively worldwide in topical otic and ophthalmic solutions for decades, the intravenous formulations were gradually abandoned in most parts of the world in the...

The Clinical Cost of Delays in Switching Therapy

Management of the HIV patient with treatment experience continues to improve and evolve. New guidelines suggest that the goal of therapy should be maximal virological suppression. This is best achieved by using combinations of agents to which the virus is most likely to have some susceptibility and, where possible, by using agents within a new therapeutic class. The cases...

Peripheral Blood Leukocytes and Serum Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction Are Complementary Methods for Monitoring Active Cytomegalovirus Infection in Transplant Patients

BACKGROUND: Human cytomegalovirus is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has proven to be a sensitive and effective technique in defining active cytomegalovirus infection, in addition to having low cost and being a useful test for situations in which there is no need for quantification. Real-time...