Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_issues&pid=0074-0276&lng=pt&nrm=iso

List of Papers (Total 515)

Outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae: two-year epidemiologic follow-up in a tertiary hospital

This study describes a carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) outbreak that occurred from October 2008-December 2010. Polymerase chain reaction assays were performed to detect the blaKPC gene and molecular typing was performed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). There were 33 CRKP infections; PFGE revealed five genotypes: genotype A in five (15%), B in 18...

Potential sources of Triatoma infestans reinfesting peridomiciles identified by morphological characterization in Los Llanos, La Rioja, Argentina

The presence of Triatoma infestans in habitats treated with insecticides constitutes a frequent problem in endemic areas. Basing our study on the hypothesis that descendants of a residual population should be more similar to the pre-treatment population than to any other, we compared the indications of two quantitative morphological approaches. This study seeks to find the origin...

The efficiency of concentration methods used to detect enteric viruses in anaerobically digested sludge

The presence of enteric viruses in biosolids can be underestimated due to the inefficient methods (mainly molecular methods) used to recover the viruses from these matrices. Therefore, the goal of this study was to evaluate the different methods used to recover adenoviruses (AdV), rotavirus species A (RVA), norovirus genogroup II (NoV GII) and the hepatitis A virus (HAV) from...

Association analysis of human leukocyte antigen class II (DRB1) alleles with leprosy in individuals from São Luís, state of Maranhão, Brazil

Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that the variability of the clinical response to infection caused by Mycobacterium leprae is associated with host genetic factors. The present study investigated the frequency of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II (DRB1) alleles in patients with leprosy from São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil. A case-control study was performed in 85...

A clinical trial for uniform multidrug therapy for leprosy patients in Brazil: rationale and design

Leprosy will continue to be a public health problem for several decades. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that, for treatment purposes, leprosy cases be classified as either paucibacillary or multibacillary (MB). A uniform leprosy treatment regimen would simplify treatment and halve the treatment duration for MB patients. The clinical trial for uniform multidrug...

Leprosy frequency in the world, 1999-2010

In 1991, the World Health Organization (WHO) committed to reducing the prevalence of leprosy to below 1 in 10,000 inhabitants by 2000. Significant improvements in leprosy control have occurred, but leprosy remains a public health problem in many countries due to its high incidence and rate of transmission. This paper reviews data published by the WHO in the years 2000, 2005 and...

Biogeographical aspects of the occurrence of Nyssomyia neivai and Nyssomyia intermedia (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a sympatric area of the Brazilian savannah

Nyssomyia intermedia and Nyssomyia neivai constitute a species complex associated with Leishmania transmission. The aim of this study was to analyse the ecological profiles of the Ny. intermedia and Ny. neivai populations in a sympatric area in the Brazilian savannah along the banks of the Velhas River. Captures were performed from July 2003-June 2005 in two distinct environments...

Comparison of the Kato-Katz and Helmintex methods for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis in a low-intensity transmission focus in Bandeirantes, Paraná, southern Brazil

The diagnosis of schistosomiasis is problematic in low-intensity transmission areas because parasitological methods lack sensitivity and molecular methods are neither widely available nor extensively validated. Helmintex is a method for isolating eggs from large faecal samples. We report preliminary results of a comparative evaluation of the Helmintex and Kato-Katz (KK) methods...

The significance of the amoebocyte-producing organ in Biomphalaria glabrata

In molluscs, internal defence against microorganisms is performed by a single cell type, i.e., the haemocyte or amoebocyte. The origin of these cells in Biomphalaria glabrata was initially thought to be localised within the vasculo-connective tissue. More recently, origin from a single organ, termed the amoebocyte-producing organ (APO), has been postulated based on the occurrence...

Identification of the natural breeding sites of sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), potential vectors of leishmaniasis, in the province of Chaco, Argentina

The aim of this work was to identify the natural breeding sites of sandflies in the province of Chaco, Argentina, for the first time. Preliminary studies were conducted in two different phytogeographic regions: dry Chaco (Parque Provincial Pampa del Indio), in January 2010, and humid Chaco (Resistencia, Margarita Belén and Colonia Benítez), from May-September 2010. A total of 127...

Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a focus of visceral leishmaniasis in White Nile, Sudan

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has been known to occur since the 1980s on the western bank of the White Nile River (Central Sudan), 150 km south of Khartoum, and has resulted in high mortality. The most recent outbreak of the disease in this area began in 2006. Entomological surveys were carried out during May 2008, June 2010 and May and July 2011 in the White Nile area. Sandflies...

Exploring the association between Trypanosoma cruzi infection in rural communities and environmental changes in the southern Gran Chaco

The association between land use and land cover changes between 1979-2004 in a 2.26-million-hectare area south of the Gran Chaco region and Trypanosoma cruzi infection in rural communities was analysed. The extent of cultural land, open and closed forests and shrubland up to 3,000 m around rural communities in the north, northwest and west of the province of Córdoba was estimated...

Co-infections associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in pregnant women from southern Brazil: high rate of intraepithelial cervical lesions

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-positive) pregnant women require specific prophylactic and therapeutic approaches. The efficacy of established approaches is further challenged by co-infection with other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of co-infections in pregnant women infected with different HIV-1...

The phylogeny of Simulium (Chirostilbia) (Diptera: Simuliidae) and perspectives on the systematics of the genus in the Neotropical Region

Recently, knowledge of Neotropical Simuliidae has been accumulating quickly. However, information about supra-specific relationships is scarce and diagnoses of Simulium subgenera are unsatisfactory. To investigate the relationships among Simulium (Chirostilbia) species and test the subgenus monophyly, we performed a cladistic analysis. The ingroup included all species of this...

First detection of Rio Negro virus (Venezuelan equine encephalitis complex subtype VI) in Córdoba, Argentina

Rio Negro virus (RNV) (Venezuelan equine encephalitis subtype VI) circulates only in Argentina; in northern provinces, isolates have been obtained from mosquitoes and rodents since 1980 and have been associated with acute febrile illness in humans. However, no studies of RNV have been performed in the central area of the country. We carried out molecular and serological detection...

Comparison of two PCR methods for detection of Leptospira interrogans in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues

In this study we compared two polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods using either 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) or 23S rRNA gene primers for the detection of different Leptospira interrogans serovars. The performance of these two methods was assessed using DNA extracted from bovine tissues previously inoculated with several bacterial suspensions. PCR was performed on the same tissues...

Cotrimoxazole enhances the in vitro susceptibility of Coccidioides posadasii to antifungals

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of cotrimoxazole on the in vitro susceptibility of Coccidioides posadasii strains to antifungals. A total of 18 strains of C. posadasii isolated in Brazil were evaluated in this study. The assays were performed in accordance with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines and the combinations were tested...

Pharmacodynamics of mefloquine and praziquantel combination therapy in mice harbouring juvenile and adult Schistosoma mansoni

Praziquantel (PZQ) is currently the only drug widely used for the treatment of schistosomiasis, but the antimalarial drug mefloquine (Mef) possesses interesting antischistosomal properties. Combination therapy with these two drugs has been suggested as a strategy for transmission control, as PZQ is active against adult worms and Mef is active against schistosomula. To examine the...

Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor enhances the modulatory effect of cytokines on monocyte-derived multinucleated giant cell formation and fungicidal activity against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

Multinucleated giant cells (MGC) are cells present in characteristic granulomatous inflammation induced by intracellular infectious agents or foreign materials. The present study evaluated the modulatory effect of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in association with other cytokines such as interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), tumour necrosis factor-alpha...

Genotypes of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii as agents of endemic cryptococcosis in Teresina, Piauí (northeastern Brazil)

Throughout Brazil, Cryptococcus neoformans is the cause of cryptococcosis, whereas Cryptococcus gattii is endemic to the northern and northeastern states. In this study, the molecular types of 63 cryptococcal isolates recovered from the cerebrospinal fluid of meningitis patients diagnosed between 2008-2010 in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil, were analysed. Out of the 63 patients, 37 (58...

Evaluation of rapid techniques for the detection of mycobacteria in sputum with scanty bacilli or clinically evident, smear negative cases of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis

The objective of the current study was to compare two rapid methods, the BBL Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGITTM) and Biotec FASTPlaque TBTM (FPTB) assays, with the conventional Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) media assay to diagnose mycobacterial infections from paucibacillary clinical specimens. For evaluation of the clinical utility of the BBL MGITTM and FPTB assays, respiratory...