BMC Medicine

https://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com

List of Papers (Total 1,856)

Effects of school neighborhood food environments on childhood obesity at multiple scales: a longitudinal kindergarten cohort study in the USA

School neighborhood food environment is recognized as an important contributor to childhood obesity; however, large-scale and longitudinal studies remain limited. This study aimed to examine this association and its variation across gender and urbanicity at multiple geographic scales. We used the US nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study–Kindergarten cohort...

The introduction of ‘No jab, No school’ policy and the refinement of measles immunisation strategies in high-income countries

In recent years, we witnessed a resurgence of measles even in countries where, according to WHO guidelines, elimination should have already been achieved. In high-income countries, the raise of anti-vaccination movements and parental vaccine hesitancy are posing major challenges for the achievement and maintenance of high coverage during routine programmes. Italy and France...

The classification of feeding and eating disorders in the ICD-11: results of a field study comparing proposed ICD-11 guidelines with existing ICD-10 guidelines

The World Health Organization (WHO) International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) is used globally by 194 WHO member nations. It is used for assigning clinical diagnoses, providing the framework for reporting public health data, and to inform the organization and reimbursement of health services. Guided by overarching principles of increasing clinical...

DECIDE: a cluster-randomized controlled trial to reduce unnecessary caesarean deliveries in Burkina Faso

In Burkina Faso, facility-based caesarean delivery rates have markedly increased since the national subsidy policy for deliveries and emergency obstetric care was implemented in 2006. Effective and safe strategies are needed to prevent unnecessary caesarean deliveries. We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial of a multifaceted intervention at 22 referral hospitals in...

Advanced cell therapeutics are changing the clinical landscape: will mesenchymal stromal cells be a part of it?

During the past 15 years there have been dramatic changes in the medical landscape, particularly in oncology and regenerative medicine. Cell therapies have played a substantial part in this progress. Cellular immunotherapies can use immune cells, such as T cells or natural killer cells that, after functional modification ex vivo, exert powerful anti-cancer effects when given to...

Morbidity, mortality and missed appointments in healthcare: a national retrospective data linkage study

Recently, studies have examined the underlying patient and practice factors for missed appointments, but less is known about the impact on patient health. People with one or more long-term conditions who fail to attend appointments may be at risk of premature death. This is the first study to examine the effect of missed primary healthcare appointments on all-cause mortality in...

Improving access to multi-drug resistant tuberculosis diagnostic and health services for refugees and migrants

By the end of 2017, an estimated 68.5 million people were displaced from their homes worldwide, of whom 25.4 million were refugees. The transmission and globalization of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis during refugee migration is a now priority issue in the public health agenda. Political and scientific commitment at the highest national and international levels will be...

Pancreatic cancer: challenges and opportunities

Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States, with increasing incidence. The mortality rate of pancreatic cancer is rising rapidly, and is projected to be the second most common of all malignant tumors by 2030. However, the diagnosis and therapy of pancreatic cancer remain a formidable challenge. Recently, enormous efforts have been...

A step forward for an attenuated blood-stage malaria vaccine

Efforts to develop an effective malaria vaccine have encountered multiple challenges, and have had limited success to date. As the need remains urgent, novel approaches must be explored. One concept that has gained attention uses whole malaria parasites. Building on preclinical studies in animal models, Stanisic et al. describe the development of a vaccine based on chemically...

Global variation in bacterial strains that cause tuberculosis disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

The host, microbial, and environmental factors that contribute to variation in tuberculosis (TB) disease are incompletely understood. Accumulating evidence suggests that one driver of geographic variation in TB disease is the local ecology of mycobacterial genotypes or strains, and there is a need for a comprehensive and systematic synthesis of these data. The objectives of this...

The hidden burden of measles in Ethiopia: how distance to hospital shapes the disease mortality rate

A sequence of annual measles epidemics has been observed from January 2013 to April 2017 in the South West Shoa Zone of the Oromia Region, Ethiopia. We aimed at estimating the burden of disease in the affected area, taking into account inequalities in access to health care due to travel distances from the nearest hospital. We developed a dynamic transmission model calibrated on...

Methods used in the spatial analysis of tuberculosis epidemiology: a systematic review

Tuberculosis (TB) transmission often occurs within a household or community, leading to heterogeneous spatial patterns. However, apparent spatial clustering of TB could reflect ongoing transmission or co-location of risk factors and can vary considerably depending on the type of data available, the analysis methods employed and the dynamics of the underlying population. Thus, we...

Updated cost-effectiveness and risk-benefit analysis of two infant rotavirus vaccination strategies in a high-income, low-endemic setting

Since 2013, a biennial rotavirus pattern has emerged in the Netherlands with alternating high and low endemic years and a nearly 50% reduction in rotavirus hospitalization rates overall, while infant rotavirus vaccination has remained below 1% throughout. As the rotavirus vaccination cost-effectiveness and risk-benefit ratio in high-income settings is highly influenced by the...

Association of longitudinal alcohol consumption trajectories with coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of six cohort studies using individual participant data

Studies have shown that alcohol intake trajectories differ in their associations with biomarkers of cardiovascular functioning, but it remains unclear if they also differ in their relationship to actual coronary heart disease (CHD) incidence. Using multiple longitudinal cohort studies, we evaluated the association between long-term alcohol consumption trajectories and CHD. Data...

Fast and expensive (PCR) or cheap and slow (culture)? A mathematical modelling study to explore screening for carbapenem resistance in UK hospitals

Enterobacteriaceae are a common cause of hospital infections. Carbapenems are a clinically effective treatment of such infections. However, resistance is on the rise. In particular, carbapenemase-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CP-CRE) are increasingly common. In order to limit spread in clinical settings, screening and isolation is being recommended, but many...

Genotype-guided versus traditional clinical dosing of warfarin in patients of Asian ancestry: a randomized controlled trial

Genotype-guided warfarin dosing has been shown in some randomized trials to improve anticoagulation outcomes in individuals of European ancestry, yet its utility in Asian patients remains unresolved. An open-label, non-inferiority, 1:1 randomized trial was conducted at three academic hospitals in South East Asia, involving 322 ethnically diverse patients newly indicated for...

Recurrence quantification analysis of resting state EEG signals in autism spectrum disorder – a systematic methodological exploration of technical and demographic confounders in the search for biomarkers

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a worldwide prevalence of 1–2%. In low-resource environments, in particular, early identification and diagnosis is a significant challenge. Therefore, there is a great demand for ‘language-free, culturally fair’ low-cost screening tools for ASD that do not require highly trained professionals...

Switching to dual/monotherapy determines an increase in CD8+ in HIV-infected individuals: an observational cohort study

The CD4/CD8 ratio has been associated with the risk of AIDS and non-AIDS events. We describe trends in immunological parameters in people who underwent a switch to monotherapy or dual therapy, compared to a control group remaining on triple antiretroviral therapy (ART). We included patients in Icona who started a three-drug combination ART regimen from an ART-naïve status and...

High burden of birthweight-lowering genetic variants in Africans and Asians

Birthweight is an important predictor of infant morbidity and mortality, and is associated with cardiovascular diseases, obesity, and diabetes in childhood and adulthood. Birthweight and fetal growth show regional and population variations even under similar maternal conditions, and a large proportion of these differences are not explained by environmental factors. Whether and to...

Clinical trial registration and reporting: a survey of academic organizations in the United States

Many clinical trials conducted by academic organizations are not published, or are not published completely. Following the US Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007, “The Final Rule” (compliance date April 18, 2017) and a National Institutes of Health policy clarified and expanded trial registration and results reporting requirements. We sought to identify policies...

Prediction of autonomic dysreflexia during urodynamics: a prospective cohort study

Autonomic dysreflexia is a severe and potentially life-threatening condition in patients with spinal cord injury, as it can lead to myocardial ischemia, brain hemorrhage, or even death. Urodynamic investigation is the gold standard to assess neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction due to spinal cord injury and reveal crucial pathological findings, such as neurogenic detrusor...

Small contribution of gold mines to the ongoing tuberculosis epidemic in South Africa: a modeling-based study

Gold mines represent a potential hotspot for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) transmission and may be exacerbating the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic in South Africa. However, the presence of multiple factors complicates estimation of the mining contribution to the TB burden in South Africa. We developed two models of TB in South Africa, a static risk model and an individual-based...

Comparison of treatment effect sizes from pivotal and postapproval trials of novel therapeutics approved by the FDA based on surrogate markers of disease: a meta-epidemiological study

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) often approves new drugs based on trials that use surrogate markers for endpoints, which involve certain trade-offs and may risk making erroneous inferences about the medical product’s actual clinical effect. This study aims to compare the treatment effects among pivotal trials supporting FDA approval of novel therapeutics based on...

Class-modeling analysis reveals T-cell homeostasis disturbances involved in loss of immune control in elite controllers

Despite long-lasting HIV replication control, a significant proportion of elite controller (EC) patients may experience CD4 T-cell loss. Discovering perturbations in immunological parameters could help our understanding of the mechanisms that may be operating in those patients experiencing loss of immunological control. A case–control study was performed to evaluate if...

Reproducibility of clinical research in critical care: a scoping review

The ability to reproduce experiments is a defining principle of science. Reproducibility of clinical research has received relatively little scientific attention. However, it is important as it may inform clinical practice, research agendas, and the design of future studies. We used scoping review methods to examine reproducibility within a cohort of randomized trials examining...