Sports Medicine

http://link.springer.com/journal/40279

List of Papers (Total 237)

Principles of Motor Learning to Support Neuroplasticity After ACL Injury: Implications for Optimizing Performance and Reducing Risk of Second ACL Injury

Athletes who wish to resume high-level activities after an injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are often advised to undergo surgical reconstruction. Nevertheless, ACL reconstruction (ACLR) does not equate to normal function of the knee or reduced risk of subsequent injuries. In fact, recent evidence has shown that only around half of post-ACLR patients can expect to...

Heat, Hydration and the Human Brain, Heart and Skeletal Muscles

People undertaking prolonged vigorous exercise experience substantial bodily fluid losses due to thermoregulatory sweating. If these fluid losses are not replaced, endurance capacity may be impaired in association with a myriad of alterations in physiological function, including hyperthermia, hyperventilation, cardiovascular strain with reductions in brain, skeletal muscle and...

From Paper to Podium: Quantifying the Translational Potential of Performance Nutrition Research

Sport nutrition is one of the fastest growing and evolving disciplines of sport and exercise science, demonstrated by a 4-fold increase in the number of research papers between 2012 and 2018. Indeed, the scope of contemporary nutrition-related research could range from discovery of novel nutrient-sensitive cell-signalling pathways to the assessment of the effects of sports drinks...

Fruit-Derived Polyphenol Supplementation for Athlete Recovery and Performance

Polyphenols are characterised structurally by two or more hydroxyl groups attached to one or more benzene rings, and provide the taste and colour characteristics of fruits and vegetables. They are radical scavengers and metal chelators, but due to their low concentration in biological fluids in vivo their antioxidant properties seem to be related to enhanced endogenous...

Food-First Approach to Enhance the Regulation of Post-exercise Skeletal Muscle Protein Synthesis and Remodeling

Protein recommendations are provided on a daily basis as defined by the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) at 0.80 g protein/kg/day. However, meal-based, as opposed to daily, dietary protein recommendations are likely more informative given the role of the daily protein distribution pattern in modulating the post-exercise muscle protein synthetic response. Current protein meal...

Exit Gluten-Free and Enter Low FODMAPs: A Novel Dietary Strategy to Reduce Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Athletes

Exercise-associated physiological disturbances alter gastrointestinal function and integrity. These alterations may increase susceptibility to dietary triggers, namely gluten and a family of short-chain carbohydrates known as FODMAPs (fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols). A recent surge in the popularity of gluten-free diets (GFDs) among athletes without celiac...

Revised Approach to the Role of Fatigue in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Prevention: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analyses

BackgroundCauses of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are multifactorial. Anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention should thus be approached from a multifactorial perspective as well. Training to resist fatigue is an underestimated aspect of prevention programs given that the presence of fatigue may play a crucial role in sustaining an ACL injury.ObjectivesThe primary...

Aerobic Training Protects Cardiac Function During Advancing Age: A Meta-Analysis of Four Decades of Controlled Studies

BackgroundIn contrast to younger athletes, there is comparatively less literature examining cardiac structure and function in older athletes. However, a progressive accumulation of studies during the past four decades offers a body of literature worthy of systematic scrutiny.ObjectivesWe conducted a systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression of controlled...

Adaptations to Concurrent Training in Combination with High Protein Availability: A Comparative Trial in Healthy, Recreationally Active Men

BackgroundWe implemented a high-protein diet (2 g·kg−1·d−1) throughout 12 weeks of concurrent exercise training to determine whether interferences to adaptation in muscle hypertrophy, strength and power could be attenuated compared to resistance training alone.MethodsThirty-two recreationally active males (age: 25 ± 5 years, body mass index: 24 ± 3 kg·m−2; mean ± SD) performed 12...

Effects of Blood Flow Restriction Training on Muscular Strength and Hypertrophy in Older Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

BackgroundThe combination of low-load resistance training with blood flow restriction (BFR) has recently been shown to promote muscular adaptations in various populations. To date, however, evidence is sparse on how this training regimen influences muscle mass and strength in older adults.PurposeThe purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to quantitatively...

Sex-Specific Changes in Physical Performance Following Military Training: A Systematic Review

IntroductionMen and women joining the military undergo the same training, often in mixed-sex platoons. Given the inherent physiological and physical performance differences between men and women, it is reasonable to question whether sex differences exist in the adaptation to military training and, therefore, whether sex-specific training should be employed to optimise training...

What Should We Do About Habitual Caffeine Use in Athletes?

Caffeine is a well-established ergogenic aid, demonstrated to enhance performance across a wide range of capacities through a variety of mechanisms. As such, it is frequently used by both athletes and non-athletes alike. As a result, caffeine ingestion is ubiquitous in modern society, with athletes typically being exposed to regular non-supplemental caffeine through a variety of...

Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Childhood and Adolescence Affects Future Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies

BackgroundAlthough cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in childhood and adolescence may be linked to future cardiovascular health, there is currently limited evidence for a longitudinal association.ObjectivesTo provide a systematic review on the prospective association between CRF in childhood and adolescence and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors at least 2 years later...

Physical Activity Questionnaires for Pregnancy: A Systematic Review of Measurement Properties

BackgroundIn order to assess physical activity (PA) during pregnancy, it is important to choose the instrument with the best measurement properties.ObjectivesTo systematically summarize, appraise, and compare the measurement properties of all self-administered questionnaires assessing PA in pregnancy.MethodsWe searched PubMed, Embase, and SPORTDiscus with the following inclusion...

The NBA and Youth Basketball: Recommendations for Promoting a Healthy and Positive Experience

Participation in sports offers both short-term and long-term physical and psychosocial benefits for children and adolescents. However, an overemphasis on competitive success in youth sports may limit the benefits of participation, and could increase the risk of injury, burnout, and disengagement from physical activity. The National Basketball Association and USA Basketball...

Context Matters: Revisiting the First Step of the ‘Sequence of Prevention’ of Sports Injuries

It is possible to prevent sports injuries. Unfortunately, the demonstrated efficacy and effectiveness of injury prevention approaches are not translated into lasting real-world effects. Contemporary views in sports medicine and injury prevention suggest that sports injuries are ‘complex’ phenomena. If the problem we aim to prevent is complex, then the first step in the ‘sequence...

Do We Need a Cool-Down After Exercise? A Narrative Review of the Psychophysiological Effects and the Effects on Performance, Injuries and the Long-Term Adaptive Response

It is widely believed that an active cool-down is more effective for promoting post-exercise recovery than a passive cool-down involving no activity. However, research on this topic has never been synthesized and it therefore remains largely unknown whether this belief is correct. This review compares the effects of various types of active cool-downs with passive cool-downs on...

Assessment of Skeletal Muscle Contractile Properties by Radial Displacement: The Case for Tensiomyography

Skeletal muscle operates as a near-constant volume system; as such muscle shortening during contraction is transversely linked to radial deformation. Therefore, to assess contractile properties of skeletal muscle, radial displacement can be evoked and measured. Mechanomyography measures muscle radial displacement and during the last 20 years, tensiomyography has become the most...