Transactions of The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

List of Papers (Total 211)

Determinants of disposal of child faeces in latrines in urban slums of Odisha, India: a cross-sectional study

Even among households that have access to improved sanitation, children’s faeces often do not end up in a latrine, the international criterion for safe disposal of child faeces.

Self-medication with non-prescribed pharmaceutical agents in an area of low malaria transmission in northern Tanzania: a community-based survey

Self-treatment with antimicrobials is common in sub-Saharan Africa. Little is known about the prevalence of this practice where malaria transmission intensity is low, and little is known about the prevalence of self-treatment with other medications such as antihypertensives and antihyperglycemics.

Neonatal vitamin A supplementation and immune responses to oral polio vaccine in Zimbabwean infants

Micronutrient deficiencies may contribute to reduced oral vaccine immunogenicity in developing countries. We hypothesised that neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS) would improve oral vaccine responses.

Social determinants of health associated with topical repellent use in pregnancy: a cross-sectional study during a Zika outbreak in Brazil

Repellent use during pregnancy was strongly recommended after uncovering Zika virus (ZIKV) involvement with congenital malformations. In this context, Pernambuco, Brazil played a key role since it was the epicentre for the main studies suggesting ZIKV teratogenicity and one of Brazil’s most affected states during the 2014–2016 epidemics. Thus we aimed to identify possible...

The double burden of diabetes and global infection in low and middle-income countries

Four out of five people in the world with diabetes now live in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), and the incidence of diabetes is accelerating in poorer communities. Diabetes increases susceptibility to infection and worsens outcomes for some of the world’s major infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, melioidosis and dengue, but the relationship between diabetes and...

Hepatitis B assessment without hepatitis B virus DNA quantification: a prospective cohort study in Uganda

Chronic hepatitis B infection affects 240 million people, with the highest prevalence in Africa and Asia, and results in 700 000 deaths annually. Access to diagnostics, particularly for hepatitis B virus viral load quantification (HBV DNA), is a major barrier to treatment. We aimed to test World Health Organization guidelines for hepatitis B management in resource-limited settings.

How well does the process of screening and diagnosis work for HIV-infected persons identified with presumptive tuberculosis who are attending HIV care and treatment clinics in Harare city, Zimbabwe?

Intensified TB case finding is recommended for all HIV-infected persons regularly attending HIV care and treatment clinics. The authors aimed to determine how well this system worked among HIV-infected patients diagnosed with presumptive TB in 14 health facilities of Harare province, Zimbabwe, between January and December 2016.

Complex interactions in soil-transmitted helminth co-infections from a cross-sectional study in Sri Lanka

Co-infection with multiple soil-transmitted helminth (STH) species is common in communities with a high STH prevalence. The life histories of STH species share important characteristics, particularly in the gut, and there is the potential for interaction, but evidence on whether interactions may be facilitating or antagonistic are limited.

Projected costs associated with school-based screening to inform deployment of Dengvaxia: Vietnam as a case study

After new analysis, Sanofi Pasteur now recommends their dengue vaccine (Dengvaxia) should only be given to individuals previously infected with dengue and the World Health Organization’s recommendations regarding its use are currently being revised. As a result, the potential costs of performing large-scale individual dengue screening and/or dengue serosurveys have become an...

Diagnosing risk factors alongside mass drug administration using serial diagnostic tests—which test first?

When tests are used in series to determine individual risk factors and infection status in a mass drug administration (MDA), the diagnostics, test order and subsequent treatment decisions (the testing algorithm) affect population-level treatment coverage and cost, but there is no existing framework for evaluating which algorithm optimizes any given outcome.

How has the Zimbabwe mycobacterial culture and drug sensitivity testing system among re-treatment tuberculosis patients functioned during the scale-up of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay?

In Zimbabwe, while the Xpert MTB/RIF assay is being used for diagnosing tuberculosis and rifampicin-resistance, re-treatment tuberculosis (TB) patients are still expected to have culture and drug sensitivity testing (CDST) performed at national reference laboratories for confirmation. The study aim was to document the Xpert MTB/RIF assay scale-up and assess how the CDST system...

Seroprevalence of dengue in school children in Mexico ages 6–17 years, 2016

Dengue is the most important arboviral disease in the world. Seroprevalence has been proposed as a marker of endemicity, however, studies are scarce.

Dengue seroprevalence: data from the clinical development of a tetravalent dengue vaccine in 14 countries (2005–2014)

Dengue seroprevalence data in the literature is limited and the available information is difficult to compare between studies because of the varying survey designs and methods used. We assessed dengue seropositivity across 14 countries using data from 15 trials conducted during the development of a tetravalent dengue vaccine between October 2005 and February 2014. Participants...

Incidence of human brucellosis in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania in the periods 2007–2008 and 2012–2014

Brucellosis causes substantial morbidity among humans and their livestock. There are few robust estimates of the incidence of brucellosis in sub-Saharan Africa. Using cases identified through sentinel hospital surveillance and health care utilization data, we estimated the incidence of brucellosis in Moshi Urban and Moshi Rural Districts, Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania, for the...

Haemodynamic assessment and support in sepsis and septic shock in resource-limited settings

Recommendations for haemodynamic assessment and support in sepsis and septic shock in resource-limited settings are largely lacking.

Zika virus transmission in Angola and the potential for further spread to other African settings

Cases of Zika virus were recently detected in Luanda, Angola, a major travel hub in Africa. The risk of Zika virus transmission throughout the continent from Angola is evaluated.