Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/

List of Papers (Total 2,475)

A Mathematical Model of Continuous HIV Mutations Eluding Immune Defence

We develop a description of HIV mutations based upon a continuum representation of the fitness of the virus, including the interaction of the virus with both specific Th1 lymphocytes as well as cross-reactive cells. This deterministic model allows a straightforward measure of the diversity of viral population and reproduces the observed increase in diversity as the disease...

Bone Formation: Biological Aspects and Modelling Problems

In this work we succintly review the main features of bone formation in vertebrates. Out of the many aspects of this exceedingly complex process, some particular stages are selected for which mathematical modelling appears as both feasible and desirable. In this way, a number of open questions are formulated whose study seems to require interaction among mathematical analysis and...

Jackknife Model Averaging Prediction Methods for Complex Phenotypes with Gene Expression Levels by Integrating External Pathway Information

Motivation. In the past few years many prediction approaches have been proposed and widely employed in high dimensional genetic data for disease risk evaluation. However, those approaches typically ignore in model fitting the important group structures that naturally exists in genetic data. Methods. In the present study, we applied a novel model-averaging approach, called...

A Simple Mathematical Method to Predict the Course of a First Episode of Liver Viral Cytolysis

Early detection of the self-limiting or chronic tendency towards disease at the beginning of the hepatitis process is a canonical element of the analysis and synthesis to formulate the diagnosis and to decide the most useful and economic therapeutic strategy. Early treatment with antiviral drugs before liver functions undergo deterioration may reduce death and disability...

A Comparative Analysis of the Structural Architecture of ssDNA Viruses

Virus assembly, utilizing a limited number of viral coat protein (CP or VP) building blocks, is an excellent example of a directed macromolecular interaction occurring in nature. Two basic principles govern the assembly of spherical (icosahedral) viruses: (i) Genetic Economy – the encapsidated genome encodes a single or few CPs that assemble a protective shell (the viral capsid...

Medical Image Fusion Based on Fast Finite Shearlet Transform and Sparse Representation

Clinical diagnosis has high requirements for the visual effect of medical images. To obtain rich detail features and clear edges for fusion medical images, an image fusion algorithm FFST-SR-PCNN based on fast finite shearlet transform (FFST) and sparse representation is proposed, aiming at the problem of poor clarity of edge details that is conducive to maintaining the details of...

Evaluating the Cost-Effective Use of Follow-Up Colonoscopy Based on Screening Findings and Age

Introduction. Colorectal cancer (CRC), if not detected early, can be costly and detrimental to one’s health. Colonoscopy can identify CRC early as well as prevent the disease. The benefit of screening colonoscopy has been established, but the optimal frequency of follow-up colonoscopy is unknown and may vary based on findings from colonoscopy screening and patient age. Methods. A...

Maximizing Interpretability and Cost-Effectiveness of Surgical Site Infection (SSI) Predictive Models Using Feature-Specific Regularized Logistic Regression on Preoperative Temporal Data

This study describes a novel approach to solve the surgical site infection (SSI) classification problem. Feature engineering has traditionally been one of the most important steps in solving complex classification problems, especially in cases with temporal data. The described novel approach is based on abstraction of temporal data recorded in three temporal windows. Maximum...

Iterative Variable Gene Discovery from Whole Genome Sequencing with a Bootstrapped Multiresolution Algorithm

In jawed vertebrates, variable (V) genes code for antigen-binding regions of B and T lymphocyte receptors, which generate a specific response to foreign pathogens. Obtaining the detailed repertoire of these genes across the jawed vertebrate kingdom would help to understand their evolution and function. However, annotations of V-genes are known for only a few model species since...

Computational Fluid Dynamics Characterization of Two Patient-Specific Systemic-to-Pulmonary Shunts before and after Operation

Studying the haemodynamics of the central shunt (CS) and modified Blalock–Taussig shunt (MBTS) benefits the improvement of postoperative recovery for patients with an aorta-pulmonary shunt. Shunt configurations, including CS and MBTS, are virtually reconstructed for infants A and B based on preoperative CT data, and three-dimensional models of A, 11 months after CS, and B, 8...

Comparing Strategies to Prevent Stroke and Ischemic Heart Disease in the Tunisian Population: Markov Modeling Approach Using a Comprehensive Sensitivity Analysis Algorithm

Background. Mathematical models offer the potential to analyze and compare the effectiveness of very different interventions to prevent future cardiovascular disease. We developed a comprehensive Markov model to assess the impact of three interventions to reduce ischemic heart diseases (IHD) and stroke deaths: (i) improved medical treatments in acute phase, (ii) secondary...

Trichomonas Detection in Leucorrhea Based on VIBE Method

Trichomonas examination is one of the important items in the leucorrhea routine detection. And it cannot be recognized by still images because of the unstable morphology and unfixed focal location caused by motion characteristic. We proposed an improved VIBE algorithm. 6 videos (totally 1414 frames) are collected for testing. In order to compare the effects of the algorithms, we...

On the Use of t-Distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding for Data Visualization and Classification of Individuals with Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that remains incurable. The available treatments for the disorder include pharmacologic therapies and deep brain stimulation (DBS). These approaches may cause distinct side effects and motor responses. This work presents the application of t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding (t-SNE), which is a machine learning...

Defibrillation in Models of Cardiac Muscle

The propagation of electrical activity in cardiac tissue can be modelled by reaction diffusion equations, where a tensor of diffusion coefficients represents anisotropy due to fiber orintation, and excitation is represented by high-order, stiff differential systems. The effects of external electrical stimulation, as in artifical pacemakers, or in defibrillators, requires bidomain...

Mathematical Modelling for Keyhole Surgery Simulations: Spleen Capsule as an Elastic Membrabe

We show that the mechanical properties of the outer covering (or capsule) of pig spleen can be modelled as a nonlinear elastic membrane with an exponential stress-strain Law. Knowledge of the caspule's elastic properties is important for the development of a virtual reality training package for keyhole surgery. Bccause capsule tissue is very fragile and tears when clamped and...

The Role of Cell Motility in Metastatic Cell Dominance Phenomenon: Analysis by a Mathematical Model

Metastasis is the outcome of several selective sequential steps where one of the first and necessary steps is the progressive overgrowth or dominance of a small number of metastatic cells in a tumour. In spite of numerous experimental investigations concerning the growth advantage of metastatic cells, the mechanisms resulting in their dominance are still unknown. Metastatic cell...

Mathematical Modelling of Profiled Haemodialysis: A Simplified Approach

For many renal patients with severe loss of kidney function dialysis treatment is the only means of preventing excessive fluid gain and the accumulation of toxic chemicals in the blood. Typically, haemodialysis patients will dialyse three times a week, with each session lasting 4-6 hours. During each session, 2-3 litres of fluid is removed along with catabolic end-products, and...

Numerical Simulations of Fractionated Electrograms and Pathological Cardiac Action Potential

The aim of this work is twofold. First we focus on the complex phenomenon of electrogram fractionation, due to the presence of discontinuities in the conduction properties of the cardiac tissue in a bidomain model. Numerical simulations of paced activation may help to understand the role of the membrane ionic currents and of the changes in cellular coupling in the formation of...

Bone Formation: Biological Aspects and Modelling Problems

In this work we succintly review the main features of bone formation in vertebrates. Out of the many aspects of this exceedingly complex process, some particular stages are selected for which mathematical modelling appears as both feasible and desirable. In this way, a number of open questions are formulated whose study seems to require interaction among mathematical analysis and...

Scheduling Medical Procedures: How One Single Delay Begets Multiple Subsequent Delays

Background: Delay is a common feature of medical disease management. Delays occur because schedules are filled, patients forget their appointment, equipment is unavailable, or because medical and non-medical complications interfere with the planned procedure. The aim of the present analysis is to model how one single delay can lead to multiple subsequent delays.

Modeling Biomarker Dynamics with Implications for the Treatment of Prostate Cancer

The authors review existing models of biomarker dynamics and develop and investigate several new models which may better accommodate the underlying biology. While the general foundations of the models studied could be applied to a number of biomarker systems, the parameter values and specific applications to treatment regimens are focused on the role of prostate-specific antigen...

Stability Analysis of a Model of Atherogenesis: An Energy Estimate Approach

Atherosclerosis is a disease of the vasculature that is characterized by chronic inflammation and the accumulation of lipids and apoptotic cells in the walls of large arteries. This disease results in plaque growth in an infected artery typically leading to occlusion of the artery. Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of human mortality in the US, much of Europe, and parts of...

Preface