South African Journal of Animal Science

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List of Papers (Total 140)

Prebiotic effects of oligosaccharides extracted from palm kernel expeller on different levels of Salmonella typhimurium infection in chicks

Prebiotic effects of oligosaccharides extract from palm kernel expeller (OligoPKE) on Salmonella typhimurium were investigated in chicks in two experiments. Results of the first experiment showed that OligoPKE reduced the colonization of Salmonella typhimurium in the cecum and increased the immunoglobulin A (IgA) production in the blood and jejunum. The second experiment further...

Effect of quercetin supplementation on the growth, feed efficiency and serum hormone levels of New Zealand White rabbits

Meat rabbits could provide a new avenue for agricultural development in South Africa, and flavonoids may be able to improve their live performance. This study investigated the effects of quercetin dihydrate (0 and 2 g/kg feed) on the growth parameters and serum-free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine, somatotropin, and cortisol levels of growing rabbits. It also provides the...

Growth performance, fatty acid profile and lipid oxidative stability of breast muscle in chickens fed probiotics and antibiotics or their mixture

This study assessed the effects of dietary supplementation of probiotics, antibiotics and an antibiotic-probiotics mixture on growth performance of broilers, and the fatty acid profile and oxidative stability of broiler breast muscle. A total of 480 one-day-old broiler chicks (Cobb 500) were assigned to four treatment groups and fed for 42 days. The basal diet served as control...

The effect of crude protein intake on sperm quality of young and old male broiler breeders

This experiment compared fertility of male broiler breeders with different crude protein (CP) intakes from diets containing 9.7%, 11.7% and 13% CP from 27 to 60 weeks of age (in two phases) and in a different group of birds from 52 to 60 weeks of age. This was to assess fertility of males with different CP intakes, as well as comparing fertility in older birds having been fed...

Intestinal digestibility of enriched-protein fodders measured by mobile bag incubated with or without pepsin-HCl and three-step techniques

Ruminal, intestinal and total tract digestibility of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) of leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala), Madras thorn (Pithecellobium dulce) and moringa (Moringa oleifera) fodders were measured in this study, using nylon bag and mobile bag techniques. Three cattle were fitted with permanent rumen and duodenal cannulae. Intestinal digestibility was measured...

Genetic relationship between growth and carcass traits in Large White pigs

Genetic relationships between growth and carcass traits in South African Large White pigs were estimated. Genetic parameters for growth and carcass traits were generated using a maternal effects model in ASREML. Data analysed were on 13 703 pigs from 28 herds tested between 1990 and 2007, and 4 128 carcasses from 21 herds evaluated between 1993 and 2007. The traits included in...

Genetic diversity of four protected indigenous chicken breeds in China using microsatellite markers

The genetic diversity of four protected indigenous chicken breeds was evaluated with 25 microsatellite markers. Polymorphism information content (PIC), heterozygosity with the estimator of genetic differentiation FST and Nei's genetic distance were evaluated. The results showed that these four protected local chicken populations showed high levels of diversity. The proportion of...

Growth responses, excreta quality, nutrient digestibility, bone development and meat yield traits of broiler chickens fed vegetable or animal protein diets

This study was carried out to compare the performance of broilers fed diets containing only vegetable protein (VP) with birds that received an animal protein (AP) in their diets. Cobb 500 day-old male broiler chicks (n = 256) were randomly divided into four experimental groups. The two AP diets contained fish meal and soybean (SBF) and fish meal with canola (CMF); while the two...

Effects of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) root extract on egg production performance and egg quality of laying hens

This study was conducted to determine the effect of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) root extract (PGRE) on egg production and egg quality characteristics of hens at the beginning of their laying period (20 weeks old). Four groups of commercial hens (Atak-S; Turkish native hybrid) were fed with diets containing 0 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg and 150 mg PGRE/kg. Experimental results...

Evaluation of cytoplasmic genetic effects for production and reproduction traits in Afrikaner cattle

The influence of cytoplasmic effects on weaning weight (WW) and age at first calving (AFC) were investigated in the South African Afrikaner beef breed. A total of 14 535 AFC records (1974 - 2008) and 68 152 WW records (1974 - 2011) were used in the estimation of variance components. All cows were assigned to different damlines, using the pedigree information available. The model...

Conception rate and fecundity of Dohne Merino ewes in a continuous mating system

A study was conducted to evaluate the conception rate and fecundity of Dohne Merino ewes in an intensive sheep production system, where continuous mating was applied. The study was conducted at the Kromme Rhee research farm. Ninety-two 3-year-old Dohne Merino ewes were used in the trial and allocated to irrigated-lucerne equal-sized paddocks of 0.85 ha. Rotational grazing was...

The effect of lucerne (Medicago sativa) hay quality on milk production and composition of Jersey cows

The influence of lucerne hay quality on the milk production potential and milk composition of Jersey cows was investigated. Three different grades of lucerne hay (Prime, Grade 1, Grade 2; selected according to the New Lucerne Quality Index) were included in a total mixed ration (TMR) and fed to lactating cows. The three dietary treatments consisted of the same basal diet (53...

The effects of an organic rearing system and dietary supplementation of an essential oil mixture on performance and meat yield of slow-growing broilers in two seasons

In this study, performance and carcass characteristics of slow-growing broiler chicks, reared in organic or conventional systems, and fed a diet with an essential oil mixture (EOM, 48 mg/kg diet), were evaluated in the autumn and spring seasons. The rearing system affected several performance indices, including body weight, feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR), but not...

Effect of diets differing in rumen soluble nitrogen on utilization of poor-quality roughage by sheep

This study investigated the effects of replacing rapid-release nitrogen (N) from urea with a graded level of slow-release N (Optigen® II) source on intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis, when sheep were fed a poor-quality roughage diet. Five rumen cannulated wethers were used in a 5 x 5 Latin square experimental design. The treatments had...

Replacement of soybean meal with maize steep liquor in the diets of feedlot lambs

It was hypothesized that maize steep liquor, which is high in crude protein, could replace soybean meal in supplementation strategies in lamb production systems. Therefore, the effects of replacing soybean meal with maize steep liquor at 0%, 33%, 66% and 100% on a dry matter (DM) basis on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and carcass characteristics were assessed in...

Environmental and genetic factors affecting faecal worm egg counts in Merinos divergently selected for reproduction

Infestation with gastrointestinal nematodes is probably among the most pervasive problems in small-stock production worldwide. Faecal worm egg count (FWEC) has been reported as an indirect measure of parasite resistance in livestock production. Environmental and genetic factors of FWEC were assessed, using data from Merino sheep that were selected divergently for reproductive...

Estimation of organic matter digestibility, metabolizable energy, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of stems and seeds of the Juncus acutus plant in ruminant nutrition

The objectives of the present study were to determine the organic matter digestibility (OMD), metabolizable energy (ME), antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid concentrations of stems and seeds of Juncus acutus. Stem and seed samples were collected from Hamsiloz Bay in Sinop, Turkey, and the proximate analysis was carried on them. The OMD percentage and ME values...

Nutrient content of South African red meat and the effect of age and production system

Feeding systems, slaughter age and other production techniques notably influence the nutrient content of red meat. The modernization of the different South African production systems since the previous nutrient composition studies, justifies the necessity to update existing knowledge on the nutritional profile of South African produced beef. In addition, a need was identified to...

Fat quality of South African pigs with different carcass classification characteristics

The carcasses of South African pigs are classified into six groups (PORCUS) according to their calculated lean meat content and measured backfat thickness. Pigs with the highest lean meat content and lowest backfat thickness belong to the P group. Fat quality of backfat from 2107 pig carcasses, sampled within the different pork classification groups at a major South African pig...

Proteomics approach as a new way to predict tenderness as compared to the classical South African Beef Carcass Classification System

The current South African Beef Carcass Classification System classifies carcasses using physical attributes such as age, fatness code and the conformation of the carcass as the only indicator of tenderness, implying that optimal tender meat is obtained from carcasses from animals with no permanent teeth. Research shows that if we take modern technologies (use of beta-agonists...

Effect of taurine and bile acid supplementation and their interaction on performance, serum components, ileal viscosity and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens

A 3 x 3 factorial experiment (4 pens/treatment, 10 birds/pen) was conducted with 3 levels of supplemental taurine (Tau) (0.0, 0.25 and 0.50%) and 3 levels of dissected bile acid (DBA): 0.0, 0.25 and 0.50% of the diet were arranged in a completely randomized design. Isocaloric and isonitrogenous starter and grower diets were fed ad libitum to chickens from 7 - 21 and 22 - 42 d...

Effects of types and doses of yeast on gas production and in vitro digestibility of diets containing maize (Zea mays) and lucerne (Medicago sativa) or oat hay

Two yeast products formulated with Saccharomyces cerevisiae were evaluated at the same colony-forming units (CFUs) per gram of substrate. Samples of maize, lucerne and oat hays were mixed (0.5 kg) to a proportion of 80% forage (lucerne or oat) with 20% maize (DM basis) and combined with each yeast to obtain 1.5 x 107 or 3.0 x 107 CFU/g DM. There was also a control without yeast...

Effects of various pre-slaughter conditions on pig carcasses and meat quality in a low-input slaughter facility

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of gender, slaughter weight, stocking density, lairage time and season on carcass and meat quality parameters in a low-input production system. The study was conducted on 400 slaughter pigs (200 barrows and 200 gilts) with live weight of 115.0 ± 4.70 kg. Barrows had higher slaughter and carcass weights, fat thickness and lower...

Growth differentiation factor 9 gene variants in Sudanese desert sheep ecotypes

Certain variants in the growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) gene have major effects on the ovulation rate in sheep. The aim of this study was to analyse GDF9 variability in the Sudanese desert sheep ecotypes Ashgar, Dubasi and Watish, and to test identified variants for association with litter size. For this purpose, ewes of these ecotypes with litter size records for at least...

Identification of genetic variation in the major histocompatibility complex gene region in Turkish sheep breeds

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in sheep, Ovar-Mhc, remains poorly characterized relative to other domestic animals. However, its basic structure is similar to that of other mammals, comprising class I, II and III regions. In this study, the Ovine MHC class II DRB1 and DRB3 genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction in eight sheep breeds reared in Turkey...