Pharmaceutical Research

http://link.springer.com/journal/11095

List of Papers (Total 379)

Recent Perspectives in Ocular Drug Delivery

Anatomy and physiology of the eye makes it a highly protected organ. Designing an effective therapy for ocular diseases, especially for the posterior segment, has been considered as a formidable task. Limitations of topical and intravitreal route of administration have challenged scientists to find alternative mode of administration like periocular routes. Transporter targeted...

Investigation into the Role of Tumor-Associated Macrophages in the Antitumor Activity of Doxil

Purpose Our recent studies show specific localization of long-circulating liposomes (LCL) within the endosomal/lysosomal compartment of tumor-associated macrophages (TAM). Based on this finding, the present study aims to investigate whether clinically applied LCL formulations such as Doxil (LCL-encapsulated doxorubicin), have alternative mechanisms of action additionally to...

On The Rate and Extent of Drug Delivery to the Brain

To define and differentiate relevant aspects of blood–brain barrier transport and distribution in order to aid research methodology in brain drug delivery. Pharmacokinetic parameters relative to the rate and extent of brain drug delivery are described and illustrated with relevant data, with special emphasis on the unbound, pharmacologically active drug molecule. Drug delivery to...

Plasmid CpG Depletion Improves Degree and Duration of Tumor Gene Expression After Intravenous Administration of Polyplexes

Purpose Tumor gene expression after the intravenous (i.v.) administration of current polymer-based gene delivery systems is generally low and short-lived. Immune stimulatory CpG dinucleotides, present within the plasmid DNA of the polyplexes are likely to contribute to this. The effect of CpG replacement on the levels of transgene expression was studied, after the i.v...

Extrinsic Fluorescent Dyes as Tools for Protein Characterization

Noncovalent, extrinsic fluorescent dyes are applied in various fields of protein analysis, e.g. to characterize folding intermediates, measure surface hydrophobicity, and detect aggregation or fibrillation. The main underlying mechanisms, which explain the fluorescence properties of many extrinsic dyes, are solvent relaxation processes and (twisted) intramolecular charge transfer...

Intravesical Treatments of Bladder Cancer: Review

For bladder cancer, intravesical chemo/immunotherapy is widely used as adjuvant therapies after surgical transurethal resection, while systemic therapy is typically reserved for higher stage, muscle-invading, or metastatic diseases. The goal of intravesical therapy is to eradicate existing or residual tumors through direct cytoablation or immunostimulation. The unique properties...

Development of Stable Influenza Vaccine Powder Formulations: Challenges and Possibilities

Influenza vaccination represents the cornerstone of influenza prevention. However, today all influenza vaccines are formulated as liquids that are unstable at ambient temperatures and have to be stored and distributed under refrigeration. In order to stabilize influenza vaccines, they can be brought into the dry state using suitable excipients, stabilizers and drying processes...

BCRP/ABCG2 in the Placenta: Expression, Function and Regulation

Knowledge concerning transport of maternally administered drugs across the placental barrier is essential for determining potential toxicity of drugs to the fetus and the value of drug therapy during pregnancy. An important determinant for fetal drug exposure is the expression of efflux transporters in the placenta. Among human tissues, the ATP-binding cassette efflux transporter...

Click Chemistry, A Powerful Tool for Pharmaceutical Sciences

Click chemistry refers to a group of reactions that are fast, simple to use, easy to purify, versatile, regiospecific, and give high product yields. While there are a number of reactions that fulfill the criteria, the Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azides and terminal alkynes has emerged as the frontrunner. It has found applications in a wide variety of research areas...

Discovery and Development of Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) Antagonists: A New Paradigm for Treating Sepsis and Other Diseases

Abstract Sepsis remains the most common cause of death in intensive care units in the USA, with a current estimate of at least 750,000 cases per year, and 215,000 deaths annually. Despite extensive research still we do not quite understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms that are involved in triggering and propagation of septic injury. Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide from...

Nonviral Approaches for Neuronal Delivery of Nucleic Acids

The delivery of therapeutic nucleic acids to neurons has the potential to treat neurological disease and spinal cord injury. While select viral vectors have shown promise as gene carriers to neurons, their potential as therapeutic agents is limited by their toxicity and immunogenicity, their broad tropism, and the cost of large-scale formulation. Nonviral vectors are an...

Ex Vivo Induction of mRNA in Human Whole Blood as a New Platform of Drug and Dietary Supplement Development

Purpose We introduced a new concept of ex vivo gene expression analysis (Mitsuhashi, Clin Chem 53:148–149, 2007), where drug action was simulated under physiological conditions. This model system was applied to study various fields of drug development. Materials and Methods Heparinized human whole blood was incubated with drugs for less than 4h. The changes of specific mRNA were...

In Vitro Performance Testing of the Novel Medspray® Wet Aerosol Inhaler Based on the Principle of Rayleigh Break-up

Purpose A new inhaler (Medspray®) for pulmonary drug delivery based on the principle of Rayleigh break-up has been tested with three different spray nozzles (1.5; 2.0 and 2.5 μm) using aqueous 0.1% (w/w) salbutamol and 0.9% (w/w) sodium chloride solutions. Materials and methods Particle size distributions in the aerosol were measured with the principles of time of flight (APS...

Immune Cell Recruitment and Cell-Based System for Cancer Therapy

Immune cells, such as cytotoxic T lymphocytes, natural killer cells, B cells, and dendritic cells, have a central role in cancer immunotherapy. Conventional studies of cancer immunotherapy have focused mainly on the search for an efficient means to prime/activate tumor-associated antigen-specific immunity. A systematic understanding of the molecular basis of the trafficking and...

The Apoptosome: Emerging Insights and New Potential Targets for Drug Design

Apoptosis plays a crucial role in tissue homeostasis, development and many diseases. The relevance of Apaf1, the molecular core of apoptosome, has been underlined in mitochondria-dependent apoptosis, which according to a growing body of evidence, is involved in various pathologies where the equilibrium of life-and-death is dysregulated, such as heart attack, stroke, liver failure...

Designer Gene Delivery Vectors: Molecular Engineering and Evolution of Adeno-Associated Viral Vectors for Enhanced Gene Transfer

Gene delivery vectors based on adeno-associated virus (AAV) are highly promising due to several desirable features of this parent virus, including a lack of pathogenicity, efficient infection of dividing and non-dividing cells, and sustained maintenance of the viral genome. However, several problems should be addressed to enhance the utility of AAV vectors, particularly those...

Natural and Synthetic Polymers as Inhibitors of Drug Efflux Pumps

Inhibition of efflux pumps is an emerging approach in cancer therapy and drug delivery. Since it has been discovered that polymeric pharmaceutical excipients such as Tweens® or Pluronics® can inhibit efflux pumps, various other polymers have been investigated regarding their potential efflux pump inhibitory activity. Among them are polysaccharides, polyethylene glycols and...

Matrix Metalloproteinase Gene Delivery for Liver Fibrosis

The resolution of advanced liver fibrosis has been recently recognized to be possible, if the causative stimuli are successfully removed. However, whether complete resolution from cirrhosis, the end stage of liver fibrosis, can be achieved is still questionable. Delivery of interstitial collagenases, such as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, in the liver could be an attractive...