Chemical Senses

http://chemse.oxfordjournals.org

List of Papers (Total 1,587)

The Pig Olfactory Brain: A Primer

Despite the fact that pigs are reputed to have excellent olfactory abilities, few studies have examined regions of the pig brain involved in the sense of smell. The present study provides an overview of the olfactory bulb, anterior olfactory nucleus, and piriform cortex of adult pigs using several approaches. Nissl, myelin, and Golgi stains were used to produce a general overview...

“Turn Up the Taste”: Assessing the Role of Taste Intensity and Emotion in Mediating Crossmodal Correspondences between Basic Tastes and Pitch

People intuitively match basic tastes to sounds of different pitches, and the matches that they make tend to be consistent across individuals. It is, though, not altogether clear what governs such crossmodal mappings between taste and auditory pitch. Here, we assess whether variations in taste intensity influence the matching of taste to pitch as well as the role of emotion in...

Effects of Salt and Fat Combinations on Taste Preference and Perception

Fat and salt are a common and attractive combination in food and overconsumption of either is associated with negative health outcomes. The major aim was to investigate contributions and interactions of salt and fat on taste pleasantness and perception. The minor aim was to investigate individual fat taste sensitivity (detection threshold of oleic acid [C18:1]) on pleasantness...

Enhancement of Odor-Induced Activity in the Canine Brain by Zinc Nanoparticles: A Functional MRI Study in Fully Unrestrained Conscious Dogs

Using noninvasive in vivo functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we demonstrate that the enhancement of odorant response of olfactory receptor neurons by zinc nanoparticles leads to increase in activity in olfaction-related and higher order areas of the dog brain. To study conscious dogs, we employed behavioral training and optical motion tracking for reducing head motion...

No Difference in Perceived Intensity of Linoleic Acid in the Oral Cavity between Obese and Nonobese Individuals

Findings from studies examining interactions between fat taste and dietary fat intake or body weight are mixed. A convenience sample of 735 visitors to the Denver Museum of Nature & Science ≥8 years old rated the taste intensity of edible taste strips impregnated with varying concentrations (%v/v) of linoleic acid (LA) (blank = 0.0, low = 0.06, medium = 0.15, high = 0.38...

A Drosophila Gustatory Receptor Required for Strychnine Sensation

Strychnine is a potent, naturally occurring neurotoxin that effectively protects plants from animal pests by deterring feeding behavior. In insects, such as the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, bitter-tasting aversive compounds are detected primarily through a family of gustatory receptors (GRs), which are expressed in gustatory receptor neurons. We previously described...

Odor Emotional Quality Predicts Odor Identification

It is commonly agreed upon a strong link between emotion and olfaction. Odor-evoked memories are experienced as more emotional compared with verbal, visual, and tactile stimuli. Moreover, the emotional quality of odor cues increases memory performance, but contrary to this, odors are poor retrieval cues for verbal labels. To examine the relation between the emotional quality of...

Oleogustus: The Unique Taste of Fat

Considerable mechanistic data indicate there may be a sixth basic taste: fat. However, evidence demonstrating that the sensation of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA, the proposed stimuli for “fat taste”) differs qualitatively from other tastes is lacking. Using perceptual mapping, we demonstrate that medium and long-chain NEFA have a taste sensation that is distinct from other...

Honing in on the ATP Release Channel in Taste Cells

Studies over the last 8 years have identified 3 potential channels that appear to release ATP from Type II cells in response to taste stimuli. These studies have taken different methodological approaches but have all provided data supporting their candidate channel as the ATP release channel. These potential channels include Pannexin 1, Connexins (30 and/or 43), and most recently...

CALHM1 Deletion in Mice Affects Glossopharyngeal Taste Responses, Food Intake, Body Weight, and Life Span

Stimulation of Type II taste receptor cells (TRCs) with T1R taste receptors causes sweet or umami taste, whereas T2Rs elicit bitter taste. Type II TRCs contain the calcium channel, calcium homeostasis modulator protein 1 (CALHM1), which releases adenosine triphosphate (ATP) transmitter to taste fibers. We have previously demonstrated with chorda tympani nerve recordings and two...

Olfactory Processing: Detection of Rapid Changes

Changes in the olfactory environment have a rather poor chance of being detected. Aim of the present study was to determine, whether the same (cued) or different (uncued) odors can generally be detected at short inter stimulus intervals (ISI) below 2.5 s. Furthermore we investigated, whether inhibition of return, an attentional phenomenon facilitating the detection of new stimuli...

Characterizing Olfactory Binary Mixture Interactions in Fischer 344 Rats Using Behavioral Reaction Times

Response times provide essential subthreshold perceptual data that extend beyond accuracy alone. Behavioral reaction times (RTs) were used to characterize rats’ ability to detect individual odorants in a series of complimentary binary odorant mixture ratios. We employed an automated, liquid-dilution olfactometer to train Fischer 344 rats (N = 8) on an odor identification task...

Late Sensorial Alterations in Different Radiotherapy Techniques for Nasopharyngeal Cancer

Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) allowed a better distribution of the dose to the tumor volume, sparing surrounding structures. Aim of the study is the objective evaluation of olfactory and gustatory impairments in patients who underwent chemo-radiotherapy for NPC. Correlation between smell and taste alterations, xerostomy, and...

Long-Term Memory for Odors: Influences of Familiarity and Identification Across 64 Days

Few studies have investigated long-term odor recognition memory, although some early observations suggested that the forgetting rate of olfactory representations is slower than for other sensory modalities. This study investigated recognition memory across 64 days for high and low familiar odors and faces. Memory was assessed in 83 young participants at 4 occasions; immediate, 4...

The Genetic Basis for Variation in Olfactory Behavior in Drosophila melanogaster

The genetic underpinnings that contribute to variation in olfactory perception are not fully understood. To explore the genetic basis of variation in olfactory perception, we measured behavioral responses to 14 chemically diverse naturally occurring odorants in 260400 flies from 186 lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel, a population of inbred wild-derived...

Loss of Olfactory Function and Nutritional Status in Vital Older Adults and Geriatric Patients

The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the association of olfactory function and nutritional status in vital older adults and geriatric patients. Three hundred forty-five vital (mean age 67.1 years) and 138 geriatric older adults (mean age 80.9 years) were included. Nutritional status was assessed using the mini nutritional assessment-short form. The Sniffin’ Sticks...

A New Gustometer for Taste Testing in Rodents

In recent years, to circumvent the interpretive limitations associated with intake tests commonly used to assess taste function in rodents, investigators have developed devices called gustometers to deliver small volumes of taste samples and measure immediate responses, thereby increasing confidence that the behavior of the animal is under orosensory control. Most of these...

Advantame Sweetener Preference in C57BL/6J Mice and Sprague-Dawley Rats

Advantame is a new ultrahigh-intensity noncaloric sweetener derived from aspartame and approved for human use. Rats and mice are not attracted to the taste of aspartame and this study determined their preference for advantame. In 24-h choice tests with water, C57BL/6J mice and Sprague-Dawley rats were indifferent to advantame at concentrations of 0.01, 0.03, and 0.1mM but...

Test–Retest Reliability and Validity of the Sniffin’ TOM Odor Memory Test

Few attempts have been made to develop an olfactory test that captures episodic retention of olfactory information. Assessment of episodic odor memory is of particular interest in aging and in the cognitively impaired as both episodic memory deficits and olfactory loss have been targeted as reliable hallmarks of cognitive decline and impending dementia. Here, 96 healthy...

Evidence for Different Patterns of Chemosensory Alterations in the Elderly Population: Impact of Age Versus Dependency

The present experiment aimed to explore the interindividual variability in chemosensory abilities among the elderly population. The chemosensory abilities of 559 subjects, aged from 65 to 99 years, were evaluated. Various categories of the elderly, including people who were living at home either without or with assistance, and people who were living in a nursing home, were...

Long-Term Alterations in Peripheral Taste Responses to NaCl in Adult Rats Following Neonatal Chorda Tympani Transection

The peripheral taste system of the adult rodent is highly resilient against damage, with morphological, behavioral, and functional recovery evident after regeneration of a transected nerve. If chorda tympani transection (CTX) occurs at early postnatal ages however, the nerve fails to regenerate and effects on tongue morphology and behavior are more severe and longer-lasting...

Stereological Estimation of Olfactory Receptor Neurons in Rats

The total number of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) in the rat main olfactory epithelium (MOE) was estimated using stereological sampling. Skulls and noses of newborn (postnatal day 0), young adult (8 weeks), and adult (6 months) rats were decalcified, embedded in paraffin, cut into 10-μm thick sections serially at 100-μm intervals, and processed for immunohistochemistry for...

Heightened Avidity for Trisodium Pyrophosphate in Mice Lacking Tas1r3

Laboratory rats and mice prefer some concentrations of tri- and tetrasodium pyrophosphate (Na3HP2O7 and Na4P2O7) to water, but how they detect pyrophosphates is unknown. Here, we assessed whether T1R3 is involved. We found that relative to wild-type littermate controls, Tas1r3 knockout mice had stronger preferences for 5.6–56mM Na3HP2O7 in 2-bottle choice tests, and they licked...

The Evaluation of Olfactory Function in Individuals With Chronic Halitosis

Halitosis and olfactory dysfunction may disrupt an individual’s quality of life remarkably. One may ask whether halitosis has effects on olfactory functions or not? Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the olfactory abilities of subjects with chronic halitosis evaluated using the measurements of volatile sulfur compounds. This study was carried out in 77 subjects, with a...