European Journal of Epidemiology

http://link.springer.com/journal/10654

List of Papers (Total 377)

Early imaging biomarkers of lung cancer, COPD and coronary artery disease in the general population: rationale and design of the ImaLife (Imaging in Lifelines) Study

Lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and coronary artery disease (CAD) are expected to cause most deaths by 2050. State-of-the-art computed tomography (CT) allows early detection of lung cancer and simultaneous evaluation of imaging biomarkers for the early stages of COPD, based on pulmonary density and bronchial wall thickness, and of CAD, based on the...

Interaction between lifestyle and genetic susceptibility in myopia: the Generation R study

Myopia is a refractive error of the eye caused by a complex interplay between nature and nurture. The aim of this study was to investigate whether environmental risk factors can influence the genetic effect in children developing myopia. A total of 3422 children participating in the birth-cohort study Generation R underwent an extensive eye examination at 9 years with...

Blood pressure, hypertension and the risk of abdominal aortic aneurysms: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies

Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are fatal in 80% of the cases when ruptured. Hypertension has been considered a potential risk factor for AAA; but the findings from prospective cohort studies have not been entirely consistent, nor have they been summarised in a comprehensive meta-analysis. Our aim was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies of the...

Principles of confounder selection

Selecting an appropriate set of confounders for which to control is critical for reliable causal inference. Recent theoretical and methodological developments have helped clarify a number of principles of confounder selection. When complete knowledge of a causal diagram relating all covariates to each other is available, graphical rules can be used to make decisions about...

Guidelines and recommendations for ensuring Good Epidemiological Practice (GEP): a guideline developed by the German Society for Epidemiology

ObjectiveTo revise the German guidelines and recommendations for ensuring Good Epidemiological Practice (GEP) that were developed in 1999 by the German Society for Epidemiology (DGEpi), evaluated and revised in 2004, supplemented in 2008, and updated in 2014.MethodsThe executive board of the DGEpi tasked the third revision of the GEP. The revision was arrived as a result of a...

Blood–brain barrier transcytosis genes, risk of dementia and stroke: a prospective cohort study of 74,754 individuals

To test whether genetic variants in PICALM, BIN1, CD2AP, and RIN3—suggested to be involved in blood–brain barrier amyloid-β transcytosis pathways—associate with Alzheimer’s disease, all dementia, suggested vascular dementia, and stroke, and whether such associations are independent of the strong ε4 APOE risk allele. In a prospective cohort study of 74,754 individuals from the...

Identifying dementia outcomes in UK Biobank: a validation study of primary care, hospital admissions and mortality data

Prospective, population-based studies that recruit participants in mid-life are valuable resources for dementia research. Follow-up in these studies is often through linkage to routinely-collected healthcare datasets. We investigated the accuracy of these datasets for dementia case ascertainment in a validation study using data from UK Biobank—an open access, population-based...

The association between weight at birth and breast cancer risk revisited using Mendelian randomisation

Observational studies suggest that higher birth weight (BW) is associated with increased risk of breast cancer in adult life. We conducted a two-sample Mendelian randomisation (MR) study to assess whether this association is causal. Sixty independent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) known to be associated at P < 5 × 10−8 with BW were used to construct (1) a 41-SNP...

Red meat, processed meat, and other dietary protein sources and risk of overall and cause-specific mortality in The Netherlands Cohort Study

Processed meat and red meat have been associated with increased mortality, but studies are inconsistent and few have investigated substitution by other protein sources. The relationship of overall and causes-specific mortality with red meat, processed meat, and other dietary protein sources was investigated in The Netherlands Cohort Study. In 1986, 120,852 men and women aged 55...

Hospitalisation of people with dementia: evidence from English electronic health records from 2008 to 2016

Hospitalisation of people with dementia is associated with adverse outcomes and high costs. We aimed to examine general, i.e. non-psychiatric, hospitalisation rates, changes since 2008 and factors associated with admission. We also aimed to compare admission rates of people with dementia with age-matched people without dementia. We conducted a cohort study of adults ≥ 65 years...

Alcohol consumption and labour market participation: a prospective cohort study of transitions between work, unemployment, sickness absence, and social benefits

The aim of this study was to investigate the association of alcohol consumption and problem drinking on transitions between work, unemployment, sickness absence and social benefits. Participants were 86,417 men and women aged 18–60 years who participated in the Danish National Health Survey in 2010. Information on alcohol consumption (units per week) and problem drinking (CAGE-C...

The risk of breast and gynecological cancer in women with a diagnosis of infertility: a nationwide population-based study

Some studies have suggested that infertility is a risk factor for endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer. The study aimed to create a comprehensive picture of the association between infertility and the risk of ovarian, endometrial and breast cancer, and whether any association could be explained by ovulatory disturbances, endometriosis or nulliparity. In a population-based...

Protein markers and risk of type 2 diabetes and prediabetes: a targeted proteomics approach in the KORA F4/FF4 study

The objective of the present study was to identify proteins that contribute to pathophysiology and allow prediction of incident type 2 diabetes or incident prediabetes. We quantified 14 candidate proteins using targeted mass spectrometry in plasma samples of the prospective, population-based German KORA F4/FF4 study (6.5-year follow-up). 892 participants aged 42–81 years were...

The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio is associated with mortality in the general population: The Rotterdam Study

Inflammation is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality in the elderly. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a marker of systemic inflammation that integrates the information of the leukocyte differentials into one variable. We aimed to assess whether the NLR is a risk indicator for overall and cause-specific mortality in the general population. We analyzed data (2002...

Cardiovascular mortality attributable to dietary risk factors in 51 countries in the WHO European Region from 1990 to 2016: a systematic analysis of the Global Burden of Disease Study

This study was performed to highlight the relationship between single dietary risk factors and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in the WHO European Region. We used the comparative risk assessment framework of the Global Burden of Disease Study to estimate CVD mortality attributable to diet; comprising eleven forms of CVDs, twelve food and nutrient groups and 27 risk-outcome pairs...

A comparison of different methods to handle missing data in the context of propensity score analysis

Propensity score analysis is a popular method to control for confounding in observational studies. A challenge in propensity methods is missing values in confounders. Several strategies for handling missing values exist, but guidance in choosing the best method is needed. In this simulation study, we compared four strategies of handling missing covariate values in propensity...

Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 is associated with advanced glycation end products (AGEs) measured as skin autofluorescence: The Rotterdam Study

Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulate in tissues with aging and may influence age-related diseases. They can be estimated non-invasively by skin autofluorescence (SAF) using the AGE Reader™. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) may inhibit AGEs accumulation through anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties but evidence in humans is scarce. The objective was to...

Approach to record linkage of primary care data from Clinical Practice Research Datalink to other health-related patient data: overview and implications

Record linkage is increasingly used to expand the information available for public health research. An understanding of record linkage methods and the relevant strengths and limitations is important for robust analysis and interpretation of linked data. Here, we describe the approach used by Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) to link primary care data to other patient...

Understanding the relationship between cognition and death: a within cohort examination of cognitive measures and mortality

Despite several studies demonstrating an independent and inverse association between cognition and mortality, the nature of this association still remains unclear. To examine the association of cognition and mortality after accounting for sociodemographic, health and lifestyle factors and to explore both test and population characteristics influencing this relationship. In a...

Shift work and risk of incident dementia: a study of two population-based cohorts

This study aimed to investigate the association between shift work and incident dementia in two population-based cohorts from the Swedish Twin Registry (STR). The STR-1973 sample included 13,283 participants born 1926–1943 who received a mailed questionnaire in 1973 that asked about status (ever/never) and duration (years) of shift work employment. The Screening Across the...

Body fatness, diabetes, physical activity and risk of kidney stones: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies

We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the association between adiposity, diabetes, and physical activity and the risk of kidney stones. PubMed and Embase were searched up to April 22nd 2018 for relevant studies. Summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random effects models. Thirteen cohort studies were included...