European Journal of Epidemiology

http://link.springer.com/journal/10654

List of Papers (Total 362)

The association between weight at birth and breast cancer risk revisited using Mendelian randomisation

Observational studies suggest that higher birth weight (BW) is associated with increased risk of breast cancer in adult life. We conducted a two-sample Mendelian randomisation (MR) study to assess whether this association is causal. Sixty independent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) known to be associated at P < 5 × 10−8 with BW were used to construct (1) a 41-SNP...

Red meat, processed meat, and other dietary protein sources and risk of overall and cause-specific mortality in The Netherlands Cohort Study

Processed meat and red meat have been associated with increased mortality, but studies are inconsistent and few have investigated substitution by other protein sources. The relationship of overall and causes-specific mortality with red meat, processed meat, and other dietary protein sources was investigated in The Netherlands Cohort Study. In 1986, 120,852 men and women aged 55...

Hospitalisation of people with dementia: evidence from English electronic health records from 2008 to 2016

Hospitalisation of people with dementia is associated with adverse outcomes and high costs. We aimed to examine general, i.e. non-psychiatric, hospitalisation rates, changes since 2008 and factors associated with admission. We also aimed to compare admission rates of people with dementia with age-matched people without dementia. We conducted a cohort study of adults ≥ 65 years...

Alcohol consumption and labour market participation: a prospective cohort study of transitions between work, unemployment, sickness absence, and social benefits

The aim of this study was to investigate the association of alcohol consumption and problem drinking on transitions between work, unemployment, sickness absence and social benefits. Participants were 86,417 men and women aged 18–60 years who participated in the Danish National Health Survey in 2010. Information on alcohol consumption (units per week) and problem drinking (CAGE-C...

Protein markers and risk of type 2 diabetes and prediabetes: a targeted proteomics approach in the KORA F4/FF4 study

The objective of the present study was to identify proteins that contribute to pathophysiology and allow prediction of incident type 2 diabetes or incident prediabetes. We quantified 14 candidate proteins using targeted mass spectrometry in plasma samples of the prospective, population-based German KORA F4/FF4 study (6.5-year follow-up). 892 participants aged 42–81 years were...

Cardiovascular mortality attributable to dietary risk factors in 51 countries in the WHO European Region from 1990 to 2016: a systematic analysis of the Global Burden of Disease Study

This study was performed to highlight the relationship between single dietary risk factors and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in the WHO European Region. We used the comparative risk assessment framework of the Global Burden of Disease Study to estimate CVD mortality attributable to diet; comprising eleven forms of CVDs, twelve food and nutrient groups and 27 risk-outcome pairs...

A comparison of different methods to handle missing data in the context of propensity score analysis

Propensity score analysis is a popular method to control for confounding in observational studies. A challenge in propensity methods is missing values in confounders. Several strategies for handling missing values exist, but guidance in choosing the best method is needed. In this simulation study, we compared four strategies of handling missing covariate values in propensity...

Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 is associated with advanced glycation end products (AGEs) measured as skin autofluorescence: The Rotterdam Study

Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulate in tissues with aging and may influence age-related diseases. They can be estimated non-invasively by skin autofluorescence (SAF) using the AGE Reader™. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) may inhibit AGEs accumulation through anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties but evidence in humans is scarce. The objective was to...

Approach to record linkage of primary care data from Clinical Practice Research Datalink to other health-related patient data: overview and implications

Record linkage is increasingly used to expand the information available for public health research. An understanding of record linkage methods and the relevant strengths and limitations is important for robust analysis and interpretation of linked data. Here, we describe the approach used by Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) to link primary care data to other patient...

Understanding the relationship between cognition and death: a within cohort examination of cognitive measures and mortality

Despite several studies demonstrating an independent and inverse association between cognition and mortality, the nature of this association still remains unclear. To examine the association of cognition and mortality after accounting for sociodemographic, health and lifestyle factors and to explore both test and population characteristics influencing this relationship. In a...

Shift work and risk of incident dementia: a study of two population-based cohorts

This study aimed to investigate the association between shift work and incident dementia in two population-based cohorts from the Swedish Twin Registry (STR). The STR-1973 sample included 13,283 participants born 1926–1943 who received a mailed questionnaire in 1973 that asked about status (ever/never) and duration (years) of shift work employment. The Screening Across the...

Body fatness, diabetes, physical activity and risk of kidney stones: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies

We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the association between adiposity, diabetes, and physical activity and the risk of kidney stones. PubMed and Embase were searched up to April 22nd 2018 for relevant studies. Summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random effects models. Thirteen cohort studies were included...

The value of pregnancy complication history for 10-year cardiovascular disease risk prediction in middle-aged women

Women with a history of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP; preeclampsia and gestational hypertension) or delivering low birth weight offspring (LBW; < 2500 g) have twice the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We aimed to study the extent to which history of these pregnancy complications improves CVD risk prediction above and beyond conventional predictors. Parous women...

Mendelian randomization with a binary exposure variable: interpretation and presentation of causal estimates

Mendelian randomization uses genetic variants to make causal inferences about a modifiable exposure. Subject to a genetic variant satisfying the instrumental variable assumptions, an association between the variant and outcome implies a causal effect of the exposure on the outcome. Complications arise with a binary exposure that is a dichotomization of a continuous risk factor...

Moderate neonatal hypoglycemia and adverse neurological development at 2–6 years of age

To determine whether moderate neonatal hypoglycemia in otherwise healthy infants is associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcome in pre-school children. Population-based cohort study with prospectively collected register data from Sweden. All singletons born July 1st 2008 through December 31st 2012 (n = 101,060) in the region were included. Infants with congenital...

Evaluating Mediterranean diet and risk of chronic disease in cohort studies: an umbrella review of meta-analyses

Several meta-analyses have been published summarizing the associations of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) with chronic diseases. We evaluated the quality and credibility of evidence from these meta-analyses as well as characterized the different indices used to define MedDiet and re-calculated the associations with the different indices identified. We conducted an umbrella...

Plant versus animal based diets and insulin resistance, prediabetes and type 2 diabetes: the Rotterdam Study

Vegan or vegetarian diets have been suggested to reduce type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. However, not much is known on whether variation in the degree of having a plant-based versus animal-based diet may be beneficial for prevention of T2D. We aimed to investigate whether level of adherence to a diet high in plant-based foods and low in animal-based foods is associated with insulin...

Serum phosphate levels are related to all-cause, cardiovascular and COPD mortality in men

Hyperphosphatemia has been associated with increased mortality in chronic kidney disease but the nature of such a relation in the general population is unclear. To investigate the association between phosphate (P) levels and all-cause and cause-specific mortality, we assessed two cohorts from the Rotterdam Study, with follow-up of 14.5 (RS-I) and 10.9 (RS-II) years until January...

Flexible sigmoidoscopy in colorectal cancer screening: implications of different colonoscopy referral strategies

Flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS) screening reduces colorectal cancer incidence and mortality. Its potential to detect proximal neoplasms depends on colonoscopy referral. We estimated diagnostic performance of sigmoidoscopy using 12 different referral criteria in detecting colorectal cancer and advanced adenomas. Colonoscopy results from 14,947 participants of screening colonoscopy in...

Causal null hypotheses of sustained treatment strategies: What can be tested with an instrumental variable?

Sometimes instrumental variable methods are used to test whether a causal effect is null rather than to estimate the magnitude of a causal effect. However, when instrumental variable methods are applied to time-varying exposures, as in many Mendelian randomization studies, it is unclear what causal null hypothesis is tested. Here, we consider different versions of causal null...

From John Snow to omics: the long journey of environmental epidemiology

A major difference between infectious and non-communicable diseases is that infectious diseases typically have unique necessary causes whereas noncommunicable diseases have multiple causes which by themselves are usually neither necessary nor sufficient. Epidemiology seems to have reached a limit in disentangling the role of single components in causal complexes, particularly at...