European Journal of Epidemiology

http://link.springer.com/journal/10654

List of Papers (Total 378)

Body fatness, diabetes, physical activity and risk of kidney stones: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies

We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the association between adiposity, diabetes, and physical activity and the risk of kidney stones. PubMed and Embase were searched up to April 22nd 2018 for relevant studies. Summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random effects models. Thirteen cohort studies were included...

The value of pregnancy complication history for 10-year cardiovascular disease risk prediction in middle-aged women

Women with a history of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP; preeclampsia and gestational hypertension) or delivering low birth weight offspring (LBW; < 2500 g) have twice the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We aimed to study the extent to which history of these pregnancy complications improves CVD risk prediction above and beyond conventional predictors. Parous women...

Mendelian randomization with a binary exposure variable: interpretation and presentation of causal estimates

Mendelian randomization uses genetic variants to make causal inferences about a modifiable exposure. Subject to a genetic variant satisfying the instrumental variable assumptions, an association between the variant and outcome implies a causal effect of the exposure on the outcome. Complications arise with a binary exposure that is a dichotomization of a continuous risk factor...

Moderate neonatal hypoglycemia and adverse neurological development at 2–6 years of age

To determine whether moderate neonatal hypoglycemia in otherwise healthy infants is associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcome in pre-school children. Population-based cohort study with prospectively collected register data from Sweden. All singletons born July 1st 2008 through December 31st 2012 (n = 101,060) in the region were included. Infants with congenital...

Evaluating Mediterranean diet and risk of chronic disease in cohort studies: an umbrella review of meta-analyses

Several meta-analyses have been published summarizing the associations of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) with chronic diseases. We evaluated the quality and credibility of evidence from these meta-analyses as well as characterized the different indices used to define MedDiet and re-calculated the associations with the different indices identified. We conducted an umbrella...

Plant versus animal based diets and insulin resistance, prediabetes and type 2 diabetes: the Rotterdam Study

Vegan or vegetarian diets have been suggested to reduce type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. However, not much is known on whether variation in the degree of having a plant-based versus animal-based diet may be beneficial for prevention of T2D. We aimed to investigate whether level of adherence to a diet high in plant-based foods and low in animal-based foods is associated with insulin...

Subjective social status and mortality: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

Self-perceptions of own social position are potentially a key aspect of socioeconomic inequalities in health, but their association with mortality remains poorly understood. We examined whether subjective social status (SSS), a measure of the self-perceived element of social position, was associated with mortality and its role in the associations between objective socioeconomic...

Serum phosphate levels are related to all-cause, cardiovascular and COPD mortality in men

Hyperphosphatemia has been associated with increased mortality in chronic kidney disease but the nature of such a relation in the general population is unclear. To investigate the association between phosphate (P) levels and all-cause and cause-specific mortality, we assessed two cohorts from the Rotterdam Study, with follow-up of 14.5 (RS-I) and 10.9 (RS-II) years until January...

Flexible sigmoidoscopy in colorectal cancer screening: implications of different colonoscopy referral strategies

Flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS) screening reduces colorectal cancer incidence and mortality. Its potential to detect proximal neoplasms depends on colonoscopy referral. We estimated diagnostic performance of sigmoidoscopy using 12 different referral criteria in detecting colorectal cancer and advanced adenomas. Colonoscopy results from 14,947 participants of screening colonoscopy in...

External validation of four dementia prediction models for use in the general community-dwelling population: a comparative analysis from the Rotterdam Study

To systematically review the literature for dementia prediction models for use in the general population and externally validate their performance in a head-to-head comparison. We selected four prediction models for validation: CAIDE, BDSI, ANU-ADRI and DRS. From the Rotterdam Study, 6667 non-demented individuals aged 55 years and older were assessed between 1997 and 2001...

Causal null hypotheses of sustained treatment strategies: What can be tested with an instrumental variable?

Sometimes instrumental variable methods are used to test whether a causal effect is null rather than to estimate the magnitude of a causal effect. However, when instrumental variable methods are applied to time-varying exposures, as in many Mendelian randomization studies, it is unclear what causal null hypothesis is tested. Here, we consider different versions of causal null...

From John Snow to omics: the long journey of environmental epidemiology

A major difference between infectious and non-communicable diseases is that infectious diseases typically have unique necessary causes whereas noncommunicable diseases have multiple causes which by themselves are usually neither necessary nor sufficient. Epidemiology seems to have reached a limit in disentangling the role of single components in causal complexes, particularly at...

Body mass index, abdominal fatness, weight gain and the risk of psoriasis: a systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis of prospective studies

Greater body mass index (BMI) has been associated with increased risk of psoriasis in case–control and cross-sectional studies, however, the evidence from prospective studies has been limited. We conducted a systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis of different adiposity measures and the risk of psoriasis to provide a more robust summary of the evidence based on data...

Serum magnesium and risk of incident heart failure in older men: The British Regional Heart Study

To examine the association between serum magnesium and incident heart failure (HF) in older men and investigate potential pathways including cardiac function, inflammation and lung function. Prospective study of 3523 men aged 60–79 years with no prevalent HF or myocardial infarction followed up for a mean period of 15 years, during which 268 incident HF cases were ascertained...

One- and two-stage surgical revision of peri-prosthetic joint infection of the hip: a pooled individual participant data analysis of 44 cohort studies

One-stage and two-stage revision strategies are the two main options for treating established chronic peri-prosthetic joint infection (PJI) of the hip; however, there is uncertainty regarding which is the best treatment option. We aimed to compare the risk of re-infection between the two revision strategies using pooled individual participant data (IPD). Observational cohort...

Antenatal non-medical risk assessment and care pathways to improve pregnancy outcomes: a cluster randomised controlled trial

Social deprivation negatively affects health outcomes but receives little attention in obstetric risk selection. We investigated whether a combination of (1) risk assessment focused on non-medical risk factors, lifestyle factors, and medical risk factors, with (2) subsequent institution of risk-specific care pathways, and (3) multidisciplinary consultation between care providers...

Sedentary behaviour and risk of all-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality, and incident type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and dose response meta-analysis

Purpose: To estimate the strength and shape of the dose–response relationship between sedentary behaviour and all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer mortality, and incident type 2 diabetes (T2D), adjusted for physical activity (PA). Data Sources: Pubmed, Web of Knowledge, Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar (through September-2016); reference lists...

The combination of cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle strength, and mortality risk

Little is known about the combined associations of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and hand grip strength (GS) with mortality in general adult populations. The purpose of this study was to compare the relative risk of mortality for CRF, GS, and their combination. In UK Biobank, a prospective cohort of > 0.5 million adults aged 40–69 years, CRF was measured through submaximal bike...

The importance of endpoint selection: How effective does a drug need to be for success in a clinical trial of a possible Alzheimer’s disease treatment?

To date, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) clinical trials have been largely unsuccessful. Failures have been attributed to a number of factors including ineffective drugs, inadequate targets, and poor trial design, of which the choice of endpoint is crucial. Using data from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, we have calculated the minimum detectable effect size (MDES) in...

Estimation of causal effect measures with the <Emphasis FontCategory=

Measures of causal effects play a central role in epidemiology. A wide range of measures exist, which are designed to give relevant answers to substantive epidemiological research questions. However, due to mathematical convenience and software limitations most studies only report odds ratios for binary outcomes and hazard ratios for time-to-event outcomes. In this paper we show...

The PanCareSurFup cohort of 83,333 five-year survivors of childhood cancer: a cohort from 12 European countries

Childhood cancer survivors face risks from a variety of late effects, including cardiac events, second cancers, and late mortality. The aim of the pan-European PanCare Childhood and Adolescent Cancer Survivor Care and Follow-Up Studies (PanCareSurFup) Consortium was to collect data on incidence and risk factors for these late effects among childhood cancer survivors in Europe...