Pediatric Research

http://www.nature.com/pr

List of Papers (Total 26,013)

Vitamin D binding protein polymorphisms significantly impact vitamin D status in children

BackgroundPolymorphic alleles of the vitamin D (vitD)-binding protein (VDBP) gene are associated with discriminatory differences in circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-D), the indicator of vitD status (sufficiency defined by the Endocrine Society as ≥75 nmol/L). Within a diverse group of children, we hypothesized that reaching recommended daily allowance (RDA...

Genetic and metabolic predictors of hepatic fat content in a cohort of Italian children with obesity

ObjectivesTo comprehensively explore metabolic and genetic contributors to liver fat accumulation in overweight/obese children.MethodsTwo hundred thirty Italian children with obesity were investigated for metabolic parameters and genotyped for PNPLA3, TM6SF2, GCKR, and MBOAT7 gene variants. Percentage hepatic fat content (HFF%) was measured by nuclear magnetic resonance...

Introduction to neonatologist-performed echocardiography

Cardiac ultrasound techniques are increasingly used in the neonatal intensive care unit to guide cardiorespiratory care of the sick newborn. This is the first in a series of eight review articles discussing the current status of “neonatologist-performed echocardiography” (NPE). The aim of this introductory review is to discuss four key elements of NPE. Indications for scanning...

Deformation imaging and rotational mechanics in neonates: a guide to image acquisition, measurement, interpretation, and reference values

Advances in neonatal cardiac imaging permit a more comprehensive assessment of myocardial performance in neonates that could not be previously obtained with conventional imaging. Myocardial deformation analysis is an emerging quantitative echocardiographic technique to characterize global and regional ventricular function in neonates. Cardiac strain is a measure of tissue...

Tissue Doppler velocity imaging and event timings in neonates: a guide to image acquisition, measurement, interpretation, and reference values

Neonatologists can use echocardiography for real-time assessment of the hemodynamic state of neonates to support clinical decision-making. There is a large body of evidence showing the shortcomings of conventional echocardiographic indices in neonates. Newer imaging modalities have evolved. Tissue Doppler imaging is a new technique that can provide measurements of myocardial...

Application of NPE in the assessment of a patent ductus arteriosus

In many preterm infants, the ductus arteriosus remains patent beyond the first few days of life. This prolonged patency is associated with numerous adverse outcomes, but the extent to which these adverse outcomes are attributable to the hemodynamic consequences of ductal patency, if at all, has not been established. Different treatment strategies have failed to improve short-term...

Altered metabolites in newborns with persistent pulmonary hypertension

BackgroundThere is an emerging evidence that pulmonary hypertension is associated with amino acid, carnitine, and thyroid hormone aberrations. We aimed to characterize metabolic profiles measured by the newborn screen (NBS) in infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN)MethodsNested case–control study from population-based database. Cases were infants...

Directed acyclic graphs: a tool for causal studies in paediatrics

Many paediatric clinical research studies, whether observational or interventional, have as an eventual aim the identification or quantification of causal relationships. One might ask: does screen time influence childhood obesity? Could overuse of paracetamol in infancy cause wheeze? How does breastfeeding affect later cognitive outcomes? In this review, we present causal...

The premature infant gut microbiome during the first 6 weeks of life differs based on gestational maturity at birth

BackgroundThe impact of degree of prematurity at birth on premature infant gut microbiota has not been extensively studied in comparison to term infants in large cohorts.MethodsTo determine the effect of gestational age at birth and postnatal exposures on gut bacterial colonization in infants, we analyzed 65 stool samples from 17 premature infants in the neonatal intensive care...

Maternal influence on the fetal microbiome in a population-based study of the first-pass meconium

BackgroundMeconium is formed before birth and may reflect the microbiome of the fetus. To test our hypothesis, we investigated whether maternal factors during pregnancy, such as biodiversity of the living environment, influence the microbiome of the first stool more than immediate perinatal factors.MethodsWe recruited 218 consecutive newborn infants from one hospital. Regions of...

Useful pharmacodynamic endpoints in children: selection, measurement, and next steps

Pharmacodynamic (PD) endpoints are essential for establishing the benefit-to-risk ratio for therapeutic interventions in children and neonates. This article discusses the selection of an appropriate measure of response, the PD endpoint, which is a critical methodological step in designing pediatric efficacy and safety studies. We provide an overview of existing guidance on the...

Pediatric tuberculosis detection using trained African giant pouched rats

BackgroundTuberculosis (TB) diagnosis in children is a challenge with up to 94% of children with TB treated empirically in TB high-burden countries. Therefore, new diagnostic tests are needed for TB diagnosis. We determined the performance of trained rats in the diagnosis of pediatric TB and whether they can improve detection rate compared to the standard of care...

Birth size, body composition, and adrenal androgens as determinants of bone mineral density in mid-childhood

BackgroundBirth weight has an impact on adult bone mass. Higher birth weight is associated with greater bone mineral content (BMC) and children born small for gestational age (SGA) are at an increased risk for impaired accrual of bone mass. Our aim was to study whether the impact of birth size or early childhood growth on bone mass is visible already in mid-childhood.MethodsWe...

Maternal phenylketonuria syndrome: studies in mice suggest a potential approach to a continuing problem

BackgroundUntreated phenylketonuria (PKU), one of the most common human genetic disorders, usually results in mental retardation. Although a protein-restricted artificial diet can prevent retardation, dietary compliance in adults is often poor. In pregnant PKU women, noncompliance can result in maternal PKU syndrome, where high phenylalanine (Phe) levels cause severe fetal...

Effect of recombinant human growth hormone therapy on blood lipid and carotid intima-media thickness in children with growth hormone deficiency

BackgroundReports on the association between growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and cardiovascular risk factors in children are limited. We aim to investigate the effect of different doses of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) therapy on blood lipid and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in Chinese GHD children.MethodsNinety children, including sixty isolated GHD children...