Marine Biology

http://link.springer.com/journal/227

List of Papers (Total 252)

Coral injuries caused by Spirobranchus opercula with and without epibiotic turf algae at Curaçao

Reef-dwelling Christmas tree worms (Spirobranchus spp.) are common coral associates. Their calcareous tubes are usually embedded in the coral skeleton and can be closed by an operculum. Tubes not overgrown by coral tissue either remain bare or become covered by algae. Despite their widespread distribution, high abundance and striking appearance, little is known about the impact...

Contrasting distribution and foraging patterns of herbivorous and detritivorous fishes across multiple habitats in a tropical seascape

Understanding drivers behind patterns of functionally important groups of fishes is crucial for successful management and conservation of tropical seascapes. Herbivorous fishes are the most prominent consumers of marine primary production which can have profound effects on reef resilience. We explored environmental variables affecting distribution and foraging patterns of...

Coral recruitment is impacted by the presence of a sponge community

As coral cover has declined on Caribbean reefs, space has become occupied by other benthic taxa, including sponges, which may affect the recruitment of new corals, thereby affecting the ability of reefs to recover to coral-dominated states. Sponges may inhibit coral recruitment by pre-empting potential recruitment space, overgrowing recruits, or through allelopathy. This study...

Behavioural and temporal partitioning of dolphin social groups in the northern Adriatic Sea

Complex social structure is a prominent feature in several mammal species. Such structure may lead to behavioural diversity not only among populations, but also within a single population, where different subsets of a population may exhibit different types of behaviour. As a consequence, understanding social structure is not only interesting biologically, but may also help...

Divergent foraging strategies during incubation of an unusually wide-ranging seabird, the Murphy’s petrel

Divergent foraging strategies may emerge within a population due to a combination of physiological and environmental factors; yet to persist, neither strategy should offer a consistent selective advantage over the alternative in the long term. Murphy’s petrels Pterodroma ultima from Henderson Island (24°20′S, 128°20′W) in the South Pacific Ocean are highly vagile, and exhibit two...

Pronounced long-term trends in year-round diet composition of the European shag Phalacrocorax aristotelis

Populations of marine top predators are exhibiting pronounced demographic changes due to alterations in prey availability and quality. Changes in diet composition is a key potential mechanism whereby alterations in prey availability can affect predator demography. Studies of long-term trends in diet have focused on the breeding season. However, long-term changes in non-breeding...

Fatty acid signatures connect thiamine deficiency with the diet of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) feeding in the Baltic Sea

Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency in salmonids related to a lipid-rich fish diet causes offspring mortality in the yolk-sac fry phase. A low free thiamine (THIAM) concentration in eggs is an indication of this syndrome. Thiamine deficiency of salmon (Salmo salar) feeding in the Baltic Sea, called M74, was connected to the principal prey fish and feeding area using fatty acid (FA...

Quantifying individual specialization using tracking data: a case study on two species of albatrosses

Many predictive models of spatial and temporal distribution (e.g. in response to climate change or species introductions) assume that species have one environmental niche that applies to all individuals. However, there is growing evidence that individuals can have environmental preferences that are narrower than the species niche. Such individual specialization has mainly been...

Toward a mechanistic understanding of trophic structure: inferences from simulating stable isotope ratios

Stable isotope ratios (SIR) are widely used to estimate food-web trophic levels (TLs). We built systems dynamic N-biomass-based models of different levels of complexity, containing explicit descriptions of isotope fractionation and of trophic level. The values of δ15N and TLs, as independent and emergent properties, were used to test the potential for the SIR of nutrients...

Review: the energetic value of zooplankton and nekton species of the Southern Ocean

Understanding the energy flux through food webs is important for estimating the capacity of marine ecosystems to support stocks of living resources. The energy density of species involved in trophic energy transfer has been measured in a large number of small studies, scattered over a 40-year publication record. Here, we reviewed energy density records of Southern Ocean...

Oceanographic barriers to gene flow promote genetic subdivision of the tunicate Ciona intestinalis in a North Sea archipelago

Pelagic larval development has the potential to connect populations over large geographic distances and prevent genetic structuring. The solitary tunicate Ciona intestinalis has pelagic eggs and a swimming larval stage lasting for maximum a few days, with the potential for a homogenizing gene flow over relatively large areas. In the eastern North Sea, it is found in a...

Sex, size and isotopes: cryptic trophic ecology of an apex predator, the white shark Carcharodon carcharias

Demographic differences in resource use are key components of population and species ecology across the animal kingdom. White sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) are migratory, apex predators, which have undergone significant population declines across their range. Understanding their ecology is key to ensuring that management strategies are effective. Here, we carry out the first...

Resilience in carbonate production despite three coral bleaching events in 5 years on an inshore patch reef in the Florida Keys

The persistence of coral reef frameworks requires that calcium carbonate (CaCO3) production by corals and other calcifiers outpaces CaCO3 loss via physical, chemical, and biological erosion. Coral bleaching causes declines in CaCO3 production, but this varies with bleaching severity and the species impacted. We conducted census-based CaCO3 budget surveys using the established...

Environmental drivers of harbour porpoise fine-scale movements

Quantifying intraspecific variation in movement behaviour of marine predators and the underlying environmental drivers is important to inform conservation management of protected species. Here, we provide the first empirical data on fine-scale movements of free-ranging harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in their natural habitat. Data were obtained from six individuals, tagged...

Limited impact of an invasive oyster on intertidal assemblage structure and biodiversity: the importance of environmental context and functional equivalency with native species

Impacts of invasive species are context dependent and linked to the ecosystem they occur within. To broaden the understanding of the impact of a globally widespread invasive oyster, Crassostrea (Magallana) gigas, intertidal surveys were carried out at 15 different sites in Europe. The impact of C. gigas on macro- (taxa surrounding oyster > 1 cm) and epifaunal (taxa on oyster < 1...

Development and application of a machine learning algorithm for classification of elasmobranch behaviour from accelerometry data

Discerning behaviours of free-ranging animals allows for quantification of their activity budget, providing important insight into ecology. Over recent years, accelerometers have been used to unveil the cryptic lives of animals. The increased ability of accelerometers to store large quantities of high resolution data has prompted a need for automated behavioural classification...

A synthesis of European seahorse taxonomy, population structure, and habitat use as a basis for assessment, monitoring and conservation

Accurate taxonomy, population demography, and habitat descriptors inform species threat assessments and the design of effective conservation measures. Here we combine published studies with new genetic, morphological and habitat data that were collected from seahorse populations located along the European and North African coastlines to help inform management decisions for...

Southern Ocean pteropods at risk from ocean warming and acidification

Early life stages of marine calcifiers are particularly vulnerable to climate change. In the Southern Ocean aragonite undersaturation events and areas of rapid warming already occur and are predicted to increase in extent. Here, we present the first study to successfully hatch the polar pteropod Limacina helicina antarctica and observe the potential impact of exposure to...

Predicting ecological responses in a changing ocean: the effects of future climate uncertainty

Predicting how species will respond to climate change is a growing field in marine ecology, yet knowledge of how to incorporate the uncertainty from future climate data into these predictions remains a significant challenge. To help overcome it, this review separates climate uncertainty into its three components (scenario uncertainty, model uncertainty, and internal model...