Radiation Oncology

http://www.ro-journal.com/

List of Papers (Total 1,851)

Recommendation for the definition of postoperative radiotherapy target volume based on a pooled analysis of patterns of failure after radical surgery among patients with thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

Elective use of radiation therapy to treat regionally involved lymph nodes (LNs) after radical surgery for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is controversial. We studied metastasis patterns through a pooled analysis of published results to guide post-operative radiotherapy (PORT) target designation. We searched the MEDLINE database for literature published from May 1977...

Image-guided study of inter-fraction and intra-fraction set-up variability and margins in reverse semi-decubitus breast radiotherapy

This study aimed to evaluate the inter-fraction set-up error and intra-fraction motion during reverse semi-decubitus (RSD) breast radiotherapy, and to determine a planning target volume (PTV) margin. Pre- and post-treatment cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans were prospectively acquired at fractions 1, 4, 7, 8, 11, and 14 for 30 patients who underwent RSD breast...

Progression of hearing loss after LINAC-based stereotactic radiotherapy for vestibular schwannoma is associated with cochlear dose, not with pre-treatment hearing level

Although stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for vestibular schwannoma has demonstrated excellent local control rates, hearing deterioration is often reported after treatment. We therefore wished to assess the change in hearing loss after SRT and to determine which patient, tumor and treatment-related factors influence deterioration. We retrospectively analyzed progression of hearing...

Efficacy of pre-operative stereotactic radiosurgery followed by surgical resection and correlative radiobiological analysis for patients with 1–4 brain metastases: study protocol for a phase II trial

Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has emerged as a common adjuvant modality used with surgery for resectable brain metastases (BMs). However, the optimal sequence of the multi-modality therapy has not been established. The goal of the study is to evaluate 6-month local control utilizing pre-operative SRS followed by surgical resection for patients with 1–4 brain metastases. This...

Locally dose-escalated radiotherapy may improve intracranial local control and overall survival among patients with glioblastoma

The dismal overall survival (OS) prognosis of glioblastoma, even after trimodal therapy, can be attributed mainly to the frequent incidence of intracranial relapse (ICR), which tends to present as an in-field recurrence after a radiation dose of 60 Gray (Gy). In this study, molecular marker-based prognostic indices were used to compare the outcomes of radiation with a standard...

Additional radiation boost to whole brain radiation therapy may improve the survival of patients with brain metastases in small cell lung cancer

The role of the dose escalation strategy in brain radiotherapy for small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients with brain metastases (BMs) has not been identified. This study aims to determine whether an additional radiation boost to whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) has beneficial effects on overall survival (OS) compared with WBRT-alone. A total of 82 SCLC patients who were found...

Comparison of treatment outcomes between squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of cervix after definitive radiotherapy or concurrent chemoradiotherapy

Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) is effective in the treatment of locally advanced cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). However, whether treatment outcomes of cervical adenocarcinoma are equivalent to SCC after CCRT has been a topic of debate. Medical records of cervical cancer patients treated with definitive radiotherapy or CCRT in our institute from January 2011 to...

Feasibility of a novel dose fractionation strategy in TMI/TMLI

To report our experience in planning and delivering total marrow irradiation (TMI) and total marrow and lymphatic irradiation (TMLI) in patients with hematologic malignancies. Twenty-seven patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation were treated with TMI/TMLI using Helical Tomotherapy (HT). All skeletal bones exclusion of the mandible comprised the treatment target volume and...

Clinical outcomes of radiation therapy for clinical T4b oesophageal cancer with airway invasion

Oesophageal cancer with airway invasion presents a challenge for therapy and often has serious complications. We analysed the clinical outcomes of radiation therapy (RT) in patients with clinical T4b oesophageal cancer with airway invasion. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 73 patients with oesophageal cancer who had clinical T4 disease and who received RT...

Adoption of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) for extensive stage small cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC): a population based outcome study

The survival benefit of PCI in ES-SCLC reported by a European randomized trial (RCT) in 2007 was not replicated by a Japanese RCT published in 2017. This study aimed to evaluate the uptake of PCI before and after publication of the European RCT and its association with survival in ES-SCLC. We identified eligible patients in the only two Singapore national cancer centres from 2003...

Endoscopic submucosal dissection followed by chemoradiotherapy for superficial esophageal cancer: choice of new approach

The standard treatment for superficial esophageal cancer (SEC) involving muscularis mucosal (T1a-MM) or submucosal (T1b) invasion has been the surgical resection of the esophagus. However, esophagectomy with extended lymph node dissection is highly invasive. Recent reports have shown that endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) followed by chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has promising...

Assessment of the modulation degrees of intensity-modulated radiation therapy plans

To evaluate the modulation indices (MIs) for predicting the plan delivery accuracies of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans. A total of 100 dynamic IMRT plans that used TrueBeam STx and 102 dynamic IMRT plans that used Trilogy were selected. For each plan, various MIs were calculated, which included the modulation complexity score (MCS), plan-averaged beam area (PA...

Surface scanning for 3D dose calculation in intraoperative electron radiation therapy

Dose calculations in intraoperative electron radiation therapy (IOERT) rely on the conventional assumption of water-equivalent tissues at the applicator end, which defines a flat irradiation surface. However, the shape of the irradiation surface modifies the dose distribution. Our study explores, for the first time, the use of surface scanning methods for three-dimensional dose...

Voxel-based automatic multi-criteria optimization for intensity modulated radiation therapy

Automatic multi-criteria optimization is necessary for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) because of low planning efficiency and large plan quality uncertainty in current clinical practice. Most studies focused on imitating dosimetrists’ planning procedures to automate this process and ignored the fact that organ-based objective functions typically used in commercial...

The evaluation of a hybrid biomechanical deformable registration method on a multistage physical phantom with reproducible deformation

Advanced clinical applications, such as dose accumulation and adaptive radiation therapy, require deformable image registration (DIR) algorithms capable of voxel-wise accurate mapping of treatment dose or functional imaging. By utilizing a multistage deformable phantom, the authors investigated scenarios where biomechanical refinement method (BM-DIR) may be better than the pure...

Volumetric decrease of pancreas after abdominal irradiation, it is time to consider pancreas as an organ at risk for radiotherapy planning

Volumetric shrinkage of normal tissues such as salivary glands, kidneys, hippocampus are observed after radiotherapy. We aimed to assess the alterations in pancreatic volume of patients who received abdominal radiotherapy and define pancreas as an organ at risk for radiation treatment planning. Forty-nine patients operated for gastric adenocarcinoma who received adjuvant...

Impact of VMAT-IMRT compared to 3D conformal radiotherapy on anal sphincter dose distribution in neoadjuvant chemoradiation of rectal cancer

Neoadjuvant radio- or chemoradiation (nIRT) therapy is the standard treatment for loco-regional advanced rectal cancer patients of the lower or middle third. Currently, intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is not the recommended radiation technique even though IMRT has advantages compared to 3D-radiation regarding dose sparing to organs at risk like small bowel and...

Overexpression of HOTAIR leads to radioresistance of human cervical cancer via promoting HIF-1α expression

HOTAIR was known to enhance radioresistance in several cancers. However, the function of HOTAIR on radioresistance involving the regulation of HIF-1α in cervical cancer has not been reported. BALB/c nude mice were injected subcutaneously with HeLa cells and irradiated by X-ray. The tumor volume was measured and the expression of HOTAIR in tumors was detected by quantitative real...

Urinary function and quality of life after radiotherapy for prostate cancer in patients with prior history of surgical treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia

To evaluate long-term IPSS score and urinary quality of life after radiotherapy for prostate cancer, in patients with prior history of surgical treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). In this retrospective study, we reviewed medical records of patients treated in our department, between 2007 and 2013 with surgery for BPH followed by radiotherapy for localized prostate...

Salvage radiotherapy with simultaneous integrated boost in non small-cell lung cancer patients with mediastinal relapse after surgery: a pilot study

The aim of our study was to evaluate feasibility, toxicity profile and local control of salvage intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) delivered with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) associated or not to concomitant weekly cisplatin in patients affected by NSCLC with mediastinal nodal recurrence after surgery. Patterns of recurrence, outcomes and prognostic factors were...

FDG and FMISO PET-guided dose escalation with intensity-modulated radiotherapy in lung cancer

Concomitant chemo-radiotherapy is the reference treatment for non-resectable locally-advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). Increasing radiotherapy total dose in the whole tumour volume has been shown to be deleterious. Functional imaging with positron emission tomography (PET/CT) offers the potential to identify smaller and biologically meaningful target volumes that could...

Stereotactic body radiotherapy based treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma with extensive portal vein tumor thrombosis

There is currently no worldwide consensus for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT). We evaluated the efficacy of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) as the initial treatment for HCC with extensive PVTT based on a relatively large number of patients. In our multidisciplinary approach for patients with hepatobiliary tumors, SBRT...

Reduction in low-dose to normal tissue with the addition of deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) to volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in breast cancer patients with implant reconstruction receiving regional nodal irradiation

Despite dosimetric benefits of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in breast cancer patients with implant reconstruction receiving regional nodal irradiation (RNI), low dose to the thoracic structures remains a concern. Our goal was to report dosimetric effects of adding deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) to VMAT in left-sided breast cancer patients with tissue expander (TE...

Radiation oncology resident training in patient safety and quality improvement: a national survey of residency program directors

Physicians and physicists are expected to contribute to patient safety and quality improvement (QI) in Radiation Oncology (RO), but prior studies suggest that training for this may be inadequate. RO and medical physics (MP) program directors (PDs) were surveyed to better understand the current patient safety/QI training in their residency programs. PDs were surveyed via email in...