npj Materials Degradation

http://www.nature.com/npjmatdeg

List of Papers (Total 40)

Reliable electrochemical phase diagrams of magnetic transition metals and related compounds from high-throughput ab initio calculations

Magnetic transition metals (mTM = Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni) and their complex compounds (oxides, hydroxides, and oxyhydroxides) are highly important material platforms for diverse technologies, where electrochemical phase diagrams with respect to electrode potential and solution pH can be used to effectively understand their corrosion and oxidation behaviors in relevant aqueous...

Environmental degradation of high-temperature protective coatings for ceramic-matrix composites in gas-turbine engines

The need for higher efficiencies and performance in gas-turbine engines that propel aircraft in the air, and generate electricity on land, is pushing the operating temperatures of the engines to unprecedented levels. Replacing some of the current hot-section metallic components with ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) is making that possible. A high-temperature ceramic coatings...

Atomistic origin of the passivation effect in hydrated silicate glasses

When exposed to water, silicate glasses and minerals can form a hydrated gel surface layer concurrent with a decrease in their dissolution kinetics—a phenomenon known as the “passivation effect.” However, the atomic-scale origin of such passivation remains debated. Here, based on reactive molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the hydration of a series of modified...

The hydrogen-induced pitting corrosion mechanism in duplex stainless steel studied by current-sensing atomic force microscopy

Duplex stainless steels have excellent corrosion resistance due to their two-phase microstructure and electrically insulating passive film. Nevertheless, hydrogen charging causes deterioration of the corrosion protection mechanisms, resulting in increased pitting susceptibility. In this study, current-sensing atomic force microscopy was used to investigate the electrical...

Modeling glass corrosion with GRAAL

Computational codes are necessary tools for geochemical modeling of the alteration of minerals due to their ability to handle key mechanisms, such as dissolution, precipitation, diffusion, and convection at many temporal and spatial resolutions. Modeling glass corrosion specifically requires a description of the amorphous layer that forms on the surface of the glass and its...

Effect of thermally induced structural disorder on the chemical durability of International Simple Glass

While the influence of silicate oxide glass composition on its chemical durability is increasingly known, the contribution of structure only is less well understood, yet is crucial for an accurate description of aqueous alteration mechanisms. The effect of structural disorder can be investigated by varying the thermal history of the glass. Furthermore, the structural changes...

Role of proteins in the degradation of relatively inert alloys in the human body

Many biomedical materials used today for applications such as orthopedic, dental, and cardiovascular implants and devices are made of corrosion-resistant, ‘inert’, metallic materials of the cobalt–chromium, titanium, and stainless steel alloy groups. This perspective focuses on the role of proteins in the degradation of these materials in a human body environment. After...

The role of metal vacancies during high-temperature oxidation of alloys

An improved understanding of high-temperature alloy oxidation is key to the design of structural materials for next-generation energy conversion technologies. An often overlooked, yet fundamental aspect of this oxidation process concerns the fate of the metal vacancies created when metal atoms are ionized and enter the growing oxide layer. In this work, we provide direct...

Corrosion avoidance in lightweight materials for automotive applications

Due to increasing vehicle greenhouse gas emission regulations across the globe, the automotive industry is facing pressure to improving fuel economy. The key to achieving this is reducing vehicle mass and developing alternative energy vehicles, thereby reducing environmental impact. Lightweighting has become one of the most important aspects to consider in the design and...

Radiations effects in ISG glass: from structural changes to long-term aqueous behavior

The aim of the studies about the stability of nuclear glasses is to predict as accurately as possible their behavior over geological timescale. It requires the development of experimental methods to accelerate their irradiation and leaching ageing. This study focuses on the International Simple Glass behavior under irradiation by evaluating its structural and macroscopic property...

Impacts of glass composition, pH, and temperature on glass forward dissolution rate

Nuclear waste glasses dissolve at the forward dissolution rate (rf) in very dilute aqueous solutions, which can isolate the impact of the glass composition from solution feedback and alteration product effects. While it has long been known that pH and temperature (T) strongly impact rf, the impacts of glass composition have remained uncertain. In this work, rf data from 19...

Nanoporous silica gel structures and evolution from reactive force field-based molecular dynamics simulations

Nanoporous silica-rich gel formed on silicate glass surfaces during dissolution in aqueous environment is critical in elucidating the corrosion mechanisms and the long-term residual dissolution behaviors. Silica gel models were created using two types of methods with reactive force field-based molecular dynamics simulations. The results show that the remnant silica gels created...

Impact of alkali on the passivation of silicate glass

Amorphous silica-rich surface layers, also called gels, can passivate silicate glass and minerals depending on environmental conditions. However, several uncertainties remain on the mechanisms controlling the formation of these layers. In this paper, the influence of exogenous ions supplied by solutions is studied, both on the formation and on the properties of the gel formed on...

A comparative review of the aqueous corrosion of glasses, crystalline ceramics, and metals

All materials can suffer from environmental degradation; the rate and extent of degradation depend on the details of the material composition and structure as well as the environment. The corrosion of silicate glasses, crystalline ceramics, and metals, particularly as related to nuclear waste forms, has received a lot of attention. The corrosion phenomena and mechanisms of these...

Carbon dioxide sequestration through silicate degradation and carbon mineralisation: promises and uncertainties

Turning carbon dioxide (CO2) into rocks: controlling this process, which naturally operates at the Earth’s surface over geological timescales, is likely to represent a major technological challenge of this century. One of the recurring criticisms with the carbonation reactions is their sluggishness, as it is commonly admitted that converting silicates into carbonates within...

In situ electrochemical dissolution of platinum and gold in organic-based solvent

In situ highly sensitive potential- and time-resolved monitoring of polycrystalline gold and platinum electrochemical dissolution in pure organic media is reported. This was achieved by successfully upgrading electrochemical flow cell coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Similar to the aqueous media, aggressive transient dissolution takes place during oxide...

Understanding the reactivity of CoCrMo-implant wear particles

CoCrMo-based metal-on-metal hip implants experienced unexpectedly high failure rates despite the high wear and corrosion resistance of the bulk material. Although they exhibit a lower volumetric wear compared to other implant materials, CoCrMo-based implants produced a significantly larger 'number' of smaller wear particles. CoCrMo is nominally an extremely stable material with...

Time-dependent in situ measurement of atmospheric corrosion rates of duplex stainless steel wires

Corrosion rates of strained grade UNS S32202 (2202) and UNS S32205 (2205) duplex stainless steel wires have been measured, in situ, using time-lapse X-ray computed tomography. Exposures to chloride-containing (MgCl2) atmospheric environments at 50 °C (12–15 M Cl− and pH ~5) with different mechanical elastic and elastic/plastic loads were carried out over a period of 21 months...

Chemical durability of peraluminous glasses for nuclear waste conditioning

For the handling of high level nuclear waste (HLW), new glass formulations with a high waste capacity and an enhanced thermal stability, chemical durability, and processability are under consideration. This study focuses on the durability of peraluminous glasses in the SiO2–Al2O3–B2O3–Na2O–CaO–La2O3 system, defined by an excess of Al3+ ions compared with the network-modifying...

Integrated computational materials engineering of corrosion resistant alloys

Structure, composition and surface properties dictate corrosion resistance in any given environment. The degrees of freedom in alloy design are too numerous in emerging materials such as high entropy alloys and bulk metallic glasses for the use of high-throughput methods or trial and error. We review three domains of knowledge that can be applied towards the goal of corrosion...

High resolution NanoSIMS imaging of deuterium distributions in 316 stainless steel specimens after fatigue testing in high pressure deuterium environment

It is irrefutable that the presence of hydrogen reduces the mechanical performance of many metals and alloys used for structural components. Several mechanisms of hydrogen-assisted cracking (HAC) of steels have been postulated. The direct evidence of the mechanisms by which hydrogen embrittles these materials has remained elusive. This is by virtue of our difficulty to directly...

Multi-scale investigation of uranium attenuation by arsenic at an abandoned uranium mine, South Terras

Detailed mineralogical analysis of soils from the UK’s historical uranium mine, South Terras, was performed to elucidate the mechanisms of uranium degradation and migration in the 86 years since abandonment. Soils were sampled from the surface (0–2 cm) and near-surface (25 cm) in two distinct areas of ore processing activities. Bulk soil analysis revealed the presence of high...

Development of a microfluidic setup to study the corrosion product deposition in accelerated flow regions

CRUD (Chalk River Unidentified Deposit) forms in the water circuits of nuclear reactors due to corrosion of structural materials and the consequent release of species into the coolant. The deposition of CRUD is known to occur preferentially in regions of the primary circuit of pressurised water reactors (PWRs) where the water flow accelerates. In order to investigate this...