Molecular Brain

https://molecularbrain.biomedcentral.com

List of Papers (Total 642)

Identification of plasma microRNA expression changes in multiple system atrophy and Parkinson’s disease

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small (18–25 nt), single-stranded, non-coding RNAs that play key roles in post-transcriptional gene expression regulation. The expression profiles of miRNAs in biofluids and tissues change in various diseases. Multiple system atrophy (MSA) and Parkinson’s disease (PD) are both categorized as α-synucleinopathies and often present with similar...

Visualization of spatiotemporal dynamics of human glioma stem cell invasion

Glioblastoma exhibits phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity, aggressive invasiveness, therapeutic resistance, and tumor recurrence, which can be explained by the existence of glioma stem cells (GSCs). In this study, we visualized the spatiotemporal dynamics of invasion of human GSCs in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model using time-lapse imaging of organotypic brain slice cultures...

SGIP1α functions as a selective endocytic adaptor for the internalization of synaptotagmin 1 at synapses

Proper sorting of exocytosed synaptic vesicle (SV) proteins into individual SVs during endocytosis is of the utmost importance for the fidelity of subsequent neurotransmission. Recent studies suggest that each SV protein is sorted into individual SVs by its own dedicated adaptors as well as by association between SV proteins. The SH3-containing GRB2-like protein 3-interacting...

Predictable chronic mild stress promotes recovery from LPS-induced depression

Clinical depression is frequently comorbid with chronic inflammatory disease, and neuroinflammation is currently proposed as a key mechanism in major depressive disorders. Different from unpredictable chronic stress, which is a well-established animal model for depression, predictable chronic mild stress (PCMS), a routine stress experienced in day-to-day life, has been...

Stimulation induces gradual increases in the thickness and curvature of postsynaptic density of hippocampal CA1 neurons in slice cultures

Activity can induce structural changes in glutamatergic excitatory synapses, including increase in thickness and curvature of the postsynaptic density (PSD); these structural changes can only be documented by electron microscopy. Here in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures where experimental conditions can be easily manipulated, increases in thickness and curvature of PSDs...

Regulation of global gene expression in brain by TMP21

TMP21, a type I transmembrane protein of thep24 protein family, mediates protein trafficking and maturation. Dysregulation of TMP21 is implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, underlying mechanisms remain elusive. To reveal the function of TMP21 in the brain and the pathogenic role of TMP21 in the brain of AD, the global gene expression was profiled in...

Assessment of mGluR5 KO mice under conditions of low stress using a rodent touchscreen apparatus reveals impaired behavioural flexibility driven by perseverative responses

Genetic and pharmacological manipulations targeting metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) affect performance in behavioural paradigms that depend on cognitive flexibility. Many of these studies involved exposing mice to highly stressful conditions including electric foot shocks or water immersion and forced swimming. Because mGluR5 is also implicated in resilience and stress...

Region- and time-dependent gene regulation in the amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex of a PTSD-like mouse model

Posttraumatic stress disorder is developed by exposure to a threatening and/or a horrifying event and characterized by the presence of anxiety, hyperarousal, avoidance, and sleep abnormality for a prolonged period of time. To elucidate the potential molecular mechanisms, we constructed a mouse model by electric foot shock followed by situational reminders and performed...

Proteomics of the corpus callosum to identify novel factors involved in hypomyelinated Niemann-Pick Type C disease mice

Hypomyelination in the central nerves system (CNS) is one of the most obviously pathological features in Niemann-Pick Type C disease (NPC), which is a rare neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the NPC intracellular cholesterol transporter 1 or 2 (Npc1 or Npc2). Npc1 plays key roles in both neurons and oligodendrocytes during myelination, however, the linkage between...

Genetic risk variants for brain disorders are enriched in cortical H3K27ac domains

Most variants associated with complex phenotypes in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) do not directly index coding changes affecting protein structure. Instead they are hypothesized to influence gene regulation, with common variants associated with disease being enriched in regulatory domains including enhancers and regions of open chromatin. There is interest, therefore, in...

Hyperpolarized [1-13C] pyruvate MR spectroscopy detect altered glycolysis in the brain of a cognitively impaired mouse model fed high-fat diet

Higher dietary intakes of saturated fatty acid increase the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease and dementia, and even in people without diabetes higher glucose levels may be a risk factor for dementia. The mechanisms causing neuronal dysfunction and dementia by consuming high-fat diet degrading the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) has been suggested but are not yet...

EriB targeted inhibition of microglia activity attenuates MPP + induced DA neuron injury through the NF-κB signaling pathway

Accumulating evidence indicates that microglia activation is associated with an increased risk for developing Parkinson’s disease (PD). With the progressive and selective degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons, proinflammatory cytokines are elevated in the substantia nigra (SN) of PD patients. Thus, anti-inflammation has become one of the therapeutic strategies of PD...

Systemic functional enrichment and ceRNA network identification following peripheral nerve injury

Peripheral nerve injury is a worldwide clinical issue that impacts patients’ quality of life and causes huge society and economic burden. Injured peripheral nerves are able to regenerate by themselves. However, for severe peripheral nerve injury, the regenerative abilities are very limited and the regenerative effects are very poor. A better understanding of the mechanisms...

Dual roles of anterior cingulate cortex neurons in pain and pleasure in adult mice

Human and animal studies indicate that some brain regions are activated during painful and pleasant situations, such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). In the present study, we wanted to determine if some of the same neurons in the ACC may be activated by both pain and pleasure. We labeled neurons activated by two stimuli by using two immediate early genes (IEGs), Arc and...

Differential modulation of NMDA and AMPA receptors by cellular prion protein and copper ions

N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) are two major types of ionotropic glutamate receptors involved in synaptic transmission. However, excessive activity of these receptors can be cytotoxic and thus their function must be precisely controlled. We have previously reported that NMDA receptor activity is...

Distribution of Caskin1 protein and phenotypic characterization of its knockout mice using a comprehensive behavioral test battery

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (CASK)-interacting protein 1 (Caskin1) is a direct binding partner of the synaptic adaptor protein CASK. Because Caskin1 forms homo-multimers and binds not only CASK but also other neuronal proteins in vitro, it is anticipated to have neural functions; but its exact role in mammals remains unclear. Previously, we showed that the...

Fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 interacts with APP and decreases amyloid β production in Alzheimer’s disease

The deposition of Amyloid-beta peptides (Aβ) is detected at an earlier stage in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology. Thus, the approach toward Aβ metabolism is considered to play a critical role in the onset and progression of AD. Mounting evidence suggests that lifestyle-related diseases are closely associated with AD, and exercise is especially linked to the prevention and the...

Disrupting USP5/Cav3.2 interactions protects female mice from mechanical hypersensitivity during peripheral inflammation

Cav3.2 T-type calcium channels are important for the signaling of nociceptive information in the primary afferent pain pathway. During neuropathy and peripheral inflammation, Cav3.2 channels are upregulated due to an increased association with the deubiquitinase USP5. Disrupting these interactions in male mice by the use of cell permeant peptides reverses mechanical and thermal...

Long non-coding RNA H19 and MALAT1 gene variants in patients with ischemic stroke in a northern Chinese Han population

Objectives Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified as key regulators in the development of atherosclerosis, which is a major cause of ischemic stroke. However, to date, there are no reports on the association between lncRNA gene variation and the risk of ischemic stroke. Therefore, we assessed the association between H19 and MALAT1 gene polymorphisms and...

Plasticity changes in forebrain activity and functional connectivity during neuropathic pain development in rats with sciatic spared nerve injury

Neuropathic pain is a major worldwide health problem. Although central sensitization has been reported in well-established neuropathic conditions, information on the acute brain activation patterns in response to peripheral nerve injury is lacking. This study first mapped the brain activity in rats immediately following spared nerve injury (SNI) of the sciatic nerve. Using blood...

Depressive symptoms are associated with a functional polymorphism in a miR-433 binding site in the FGF20 gene

Genetic studies of major depressive disorder and its associated endophenotypes are useful for the identification of candidate genes. In recent years, variations in non-coding RNA genes, such as miRNAs, have been explored as novel candidates for psychiatric disorders and related endophenotypes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible association between a...

The effect of Neuroligin-2 absence on sleep architecture and electroencephalographic activity in mice

Sleep disorders are comorbid with most psychiatric disorders, but the link between these is not well understood. Neuroligin-2 (NLGN2) is a cell adhesion molecule that plays roles in synapse formation and neurotransmission. Moreover, NLGN2 has been associated with psychiatric disorders, but its implication in sleep remains underexplored. In the present study, the effect of Nlgn2...

Cannabidiol enhances morphine antinociception, diminishes NMDA-mediated seizures and reduces stroke damage via the sigma 1 receptor

Cannabidiol (CBD), the major non-psychotomimetic compound present in the Cannabis sativa plant, exhibits therapeutic potential for various human diseases, including chronic neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s, ischemic stroke, epilepsy and other convulsive syndromes, neuropsychiatric disorders, neuropathic allodynia and certain types of cancer. CBD...

3D imaging of PSD-95 in the mouse brain using the advanced CUBIC method

Postsynaptic density – 95 kDa protein (PSD95) is an important molecule on the postsynaptic membrane. It interacts with many other proteins and plays a pivotal role in learning and memory formation. Its distribution in the brain has been studied previously using in situ hybridization as well as immunohistochemistry. However, these studies are based on 2 dimensional (2D) sections...