Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences

http://link.springer.com/journal/12520

List of Papers (Total 111)

A palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of the rampart construction of the medieval ring-fort in Rozprza, Central Poland

During archaeological excavations of a medieval stronghold in Rozprza, a buried thick deposit of deep black (Dark Earth type) soil was discovered. A multianalytical (sedimentological, geochemical and archaeobotanical) study was carried out in order to identify traits the Rozprza Dark Earth. The analyses demonstrated that the soil was formed as an effect of surface accumulation of...

Plant processing in the Late Mesolithic Poland: in search for function of the mysterious ‘curved knives’

Studies on the treatment and use of plants in the Mesolithic are difficult due to the small number of sources. However, they are important because it was one of the basic branches of the economy of the early Holocene community. This article presents the results of use-wear and experimental studies aimed at the interpretation of the function of the so-called curved knives. These...

How to calculate the age at formation of Harris lines? A step-by-step review of current methods and a proposal for modifications to Byers’ formulas

Harris lines (HL; also known as “growth arrest lines” or “transverse radiopaque lines”) are horizontal sclerotic lines formed in the metaphyseal or diaphyseal part of long bones, usually visualized using X-ray images. Among the factors that may lead to a temporary arrest of bone growth (and thus—to HL deposition), the most commonly mentioned are nutritional disorders...

Using ZnO nanoparticles in fungal inhibition and self-protection of exposed marble columns in historic sites

The marble columns at many historic sites represent one of the most important and fundamental architectural elements in a building. They are almost always subject to serious damage, whether in the base, middle, or crowns of columns by fungal infection. In most cases, the microbial deterioration affects the physical and mechanical properties of historic marble columns, which have...

Last hunters–first farmers: new insight into subsistence strategies in the Central Balkans through multi-isotopic analysis

This paper presents new results of stable isotope analysis made on human and animal bones from Mesolithic–Neolithic sites (9500–5200 cal BC) in the Central Balkans. It reconstructs dietary practices in the Mesolithic and documents the development of new subsistence strategies and regional differences during the process of Neolithisation. We achieved these insights into dietary...

Re-enacting the sequence: combined digital methods to study a prehistoric cave

This contribution seeks to demonstrate how recently developed 3D GIS platforms can help archeologists in relating to the original context legacy data that can be employed to digitally reconstruct the sequence of arbitrary layers as it was observed and then excavated in the end of the nineteenth century. This research has been conducted on the prehistoric cave of Stora Förvar...

An insight into Bronze Age subsistence strategy in forested Carpathian foothills, based on plant macro-remains

Lipnik site 5, from which a storage pit dated to the Middle Bronze Age (ca. 1400–1100) was studied, gave more than 70 plant taxa in the extraordinarily well-preserved charred assemblage. In the paper, a detailed description of selected plants is presented followed by environmental interpretation. Acorns (Quercus) dominated in volume and proso millet (Panicum miliaceum) in the...

Diet and food strategies in a southern al-Andalusian urban environment during Caliphal period, Écija, Sevilla

The Iberian medieval period is unique in European history due to the widespread socio-cultural changes that took place after the arrival of Arabs, Berbers and Islam in 711 AD. Recently, isotopic research has been insightful on dietary shifts, status, resource availability and the impact of environment. However, there is no published isotopic research exploring these factors in...

Spatial and orientation patterns of experimental stone tool refits

Freehand and bipolar experimental knapping of quartzite from Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania is used to conduct spatial analysis of artefact distributions using GIS techniques, and to investigate the orientation of refit lines using circular histograms. The aim of our study is to discern patterns that can be applied to the archaeological record in two domains, namely the identification...

The first metallurgy in the Pityusic Islands (Balearic archipelago, Mediterranean Sea)

The islands of Ibiza and Formentera (the Pityusic Islands in the Balearic archipelago, Spain) were one of the last insular contexts to be colonised in the Mediterranean. The first settlement occurred during the second millennium cal BCE, probably by continental Bronze Age communities. During the first centuries of occupation (ca. 2100–1400 cal BCE), local material culture is...

Were tanged points mechanically delivered armatures? Functional and morphometric analyses of tanged points from an Upper Paleolithic site at Jingeuneul, Korea

A total of 99 tanged points have been unearthed from the Jingeuneul site in Jinan-gun, Korea. The exceptionally large number of tanged points suggests a specific site function at this location. Even though the tanged point is one of the representative tool types for Korean Upper Paleolithic assemblages, the function of this tool is not well known because no systematic use-wear...

Potentials and limitations for the identification of outdoor dung plasters in humid tropical environment: a geo-ethnoarchaeological case study from South India

Dung has been an important material used by humans since at least the early Neolithic Period. It accumulated within domesticated animal enclosures and it was used as fuel and fertiliser as well as construction material. While the formers were studied in details, to date, the use of dung as a construction material received less attention. Here, we present a geo-ethnoarchaeological...

The first plant bast fibre technology: identifying splicing in archaeological textiles

Recent research into plant bast fibre technology points to a Neolithic European tradition of working fibres into threads by splicing, rather than draft spinning. The major issue now is the ability of textile specialists and archaeobotanists to distinguish the technology of splicing from draft-spun fibres. This paper defines the major types of splicing and proposes an explicit...

Environmental context and adaptations of prehistoric and early historical occupation in the Southern Altai (SW Siberia–East Kazakhstan)

The Altai Mountains are well-known for their unique archaeological records, with rich, chronologically sequenced Palaeolithic, Neolithic and the Bronze Age (late fourth–early first millennium BC) sites and, in particular, the Iron Age Scytho-Siberian and early historical monuments represented by burial sites, ritual structures, and rock-art. The Altai prehistoric archaeological...

Pasture usage by ancient pastoralists in the northern Kazakh steppe informed by carbon and nitrogen isoscapes of contemporary floral biomes

Identification of variation in pasture use by domesticated livestock has important implications for understanding the scale of animal husbandry and landscape use in modern and ancient societies alike. Here, we explore the influence of pasture floral composition, salinity, and water availability on the carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopic composition of plants from the...

A late medieval or early modern light gun barrel from the Castle Museum in Malbork—typology, technology of manufacture and identification of the smelting process

The paper discusses a gun barrel of a possibly late 15th-early 16th c. date from the collection of the Castle Museum in Malbork (Marienburg), Poland (MZM/468/MT). The barrel was originally part of a hand-held gun (a hackbut?) and was later converted into a light cannon. The barrel was made from unevenly carburised soft steel (c. 0.1–0.2% C). Both metallographic examinations and...

The Islamic cemetery at 33 Bartomeu Vicent Ramon, Ibiza: investigating diet and mobility through light stable isotopes in bone collagen and tooth enamel

The Balearic Islands occupy a central space in the western Mediterranean, at the maritime crossroads between North Africa, the Iberian Peninsula and the rest of southwestern Europe. As such, it is well placed to investigate changes in subsistence practices associated with the major cultural transitions following the arrival of Islamic rule. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope...

Ecology and hydrology of early rice farming: geoarchaeological and palaeo-ecological evidence from the Late Holocene paddy field site at Maoshan, the Lower Yangtze

The well-preserved Maoshan paddy fields (4700–4300 bp) were built on an intermediate landscape between the foothills and alluvial plain of the Lower Yangtze River. Despite several interdisciplinary research, there has been a lack of detailed environmental and ecological data to contextualise the reconstructed rice farming practices within a wider paleo-environmental background...

Did military orders influence the general population diet? Stable isotope analysis from Medieval Tomar, Portugal

This study integrates bone collagen stable isotope data (carbon, nitrogen and sulphur) from 33 human adult tibiae (15 females; 18 males) and 13 faunal remains from Tomar, while it was under the Military Orders domain (eleventh–seventeenth centuries). Historical literature indicates that the amount of meat consumption amongst Templars was lower than in individuals with similar...

Diet, sex, and social status in the Late Avar period: stable isotope investigations at Nuštar cemetery, Croatia

Diet often plays a vital role in defining social divisions within and between social groups and thus can be used to understand the social paradigms of archeological cultures. During the Early Avar period (568–630 A.D.), burial evidence indicates that there were strong demarcations of social stratification and divisions between sexes and age groups; however, the symbols of intra...

Plus ça change: pots, crucibles and the development of metallurgy in Chalcolithic Las Pilas (Mojácar, Spain)

This paper considers the structure of production, distribution and consumption of ceramics within Chalcolithic communities of SE Iberia, an important region for modelling social and technological change in the recent prehistory of Eurasia. Our research provides new data through the comparative analysis of domestic and metallurgical ceramics, as well as building and other clay...

Clarity and brilliance: antimony in colourless natron glass explored using Roman glass found in Britain

This paper discusses the development of Roman antimony decolourised natron glass, its dominance, and subsequent decline, using new trace element data for colourless glass found in Britain. Experimental glasses are used to investigate the influence of different proportions of raw materials (particularly the ratio of natron to calcium carbonate) on the resulting transparency or...

The anomaly of glass beads and glass beadmaking waste at Jiuxianglan, Taiwan

Glass beads and beadmaking waste have been excavated at the Iron Age site of Jiuxianglan (ca. third century BC–eighth century AD) in southeastern Taiwan. It was suggested that this site may be a production and exchange centre of glass beads in Iron Age Taiwan. This paper presents the analysis of 44 samples, to explore the relationship between glass beads and waste and the nature...