Progress in Additive Manufacturing

http://link.springer.com/journal/40964

List of Papers (Total 38)

A taxonomy of shape-changing behavior for 4D printed parts using shape-memory polymers

4D printing (4DP) combines the use of additive manufacturing (AM) to produce freeform components with stimuli-responsive materials, so that the printed parts can transform over a calculated duration of time. This paper provides a collective review of the transformational behavior of 4D printed parts that can be achieved using shape-memory polymers (SMPs). Using the process of 4DP...

Cybersecurity risks and mitigation strategies in additive manufacturing

Cybersecurity is a critical issue in additive manufacturing (AM), since AM relies on digital files and network connectivity. In this work, we first review several major cybersecurity risks and mitigation strategies in AM industry. Based on the review, we propose a new framework to detect threats and assess vulnerabilities in AM process. We also suggest a new technique of...

Recent advances in direct ink writing of electronic components and functional devices

Three dimensional (3D) printing technologies, known as the additive manufacturing, have been attracting extensive interests in various fields, including the academic world, industries and even daily life. It has special capabilities that can be used for increasing shape or structure complexity and fabrication efficiency, while reducing the waste materials, capital cost and design...

Using finite element analysis to influence the infill design of fused deposition modelled parts

Additive manufacturing (AM) has and continues to experience considerable market and technological growth with many forecasting a tripling in market value over the next decade. One of the primary drivers for this growth is the increased freedom afforded to the design of both the external form and internal structure of fabricated parts. This freedom presents greater opportunities...

Strengthening of plasma treated 3D printed ABS through epoxy infiltration

3D printed fused deposition modeling (FDM) material parts have distinct anisotropic mechanical properties based upon their as-built print orientation. The strength of material printed perpendicular to the deposition layers can be as low as 50% of values for injection molded parts due to less than optimum interlayer fusion, limiting their use for critical applications. The focus...

Nanoparticle improved metal materials for additive manufacturing

A variety of laser systems and powder materials is available for additive manufacturing processes such as powder bed fusion of metallic parts (laser beam melting). The required energy density for a sufficient melting of powder materials strongly depends on the optical properties of the used powder (e.g., absorption, reflection and transmittance). During laser irradiation a moving...

Temperature profile and melt depth in laser powder bed fusion of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy

In this paper, the prediction of temperature profile and melt depth for laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) of Ti-6Al-4V titanium powder material was performed by numerically solving the heat conduction-diffusion equation using a finite difference method. A review of the literature in numerical modeling for laser-based additive metal manufacturing is presented. Initially, the...

Influence of processing parameters on the evolution of melt pool, porosity, and microstructures in Ti-6Al-4V alloy parts fabricated by selective laser melting

Selective laser melting involves melting and solidification of metal powder particles in a track-by-track and layer-by-layer method to fabricate 3D parts. The present investigation focuses on understanding the effect of laser power and scan speed on the evolution of melt pool, porosity and multiple thermal cycling effects on the microstructure in parts fabricated using selective...

Achieving improved dielectric, mechanical, and thermal properties of additive manufactured parts via filament modification using OMMT-based nanocomposite

Additive manufacturing (AM) is as an emerging technique which can fabricate any complex shapes and is currently being used to directly manufacture end-use products. However, further progress in AM greatly relies on the advancements in materials that can be processed by this technique. Polymer nanocomposites are known for their superior properties compared to pristine polymer...

Experimental investigation of laser-assisted powder bed fusion of Fe-Cu powder mixture

Powder bed fusion is an additive manufacturing method which allows production of complex parts, in a shorter time compared to the conventional fabrication methods. During the last 60 years, Fe–Cu powders were widely used because of their anti-friction behavior and superior mechanical properties. Therefore, Fe–Cu powder has been selected as the basic material for the powder bed...

Factors effecting real-time optical monitoring of fused filament 3D printing

This study analyzes a low-cost reliable real-time optical monitoring platform for fused filament fabrication-based open source 3D printing. An algorithm for reconstructing 3D images from overlapping 2D intensity measurements with relaxed camera positioning requirements is compared with a single-camera solution for single-side 3D printing monitoring. The algorithms are tested for...

Porosity detection in electron beam-melted Ti-6Al-4V using high-resolution neutron imaging and grating-based interferometry

A high-resolution neutron tomography system and a grating-based interferometer are used to explore electron beam-melted titanium test objects. The high-resolution neutron tomography system (attenuation-based imaging) has a pixel size of 6.4 µm, appropriate for detecting voids near 25 µm over a (1.5 cm)3 volume. The neutron interferometer provides dark-field (small-angle...

The manufacture of 3D printing of medical grade TPU

There is a critical need for developing medical grade polymer filament to be used for 3D printing. In this work, a new filament made by medical grade thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPU) was produced by a single-screw extruder, and then tensile dumbbell specimens were printed by a fused deposition modeling (FDM) machine. In the FDM process, the effects of the orientation angle and...

Design and mechanical characterization of solid and highly porous 3D printed poly(propylene fumarate) scaffolds

The primary goal of tissue engineering is to repair a defect by encouraging new tissue growth and remodeling of that tissue within a biodegradable scaffold. The scaffold is the centerpiece of tissue engineering efforts, and its design and properties are of paramount importance. The architecture of the scaffold will directly impact its mechanical strength, degradation...

Experimental investigations for dimensional accuracy and surface finish of polyurethane prototypes fabricated by indirect rapid tooling: a case study

In this research work, an effort has been made to study the influence of selected input parameters on the dimensional accuracy (linear as well as radial) and surface finish of polyurethane prototypes fabricated by vacuum casting (VC) process as a case study. The master pattern required for making a silicone mould has been fabricated by fused deposition modelling and its surface...

Investigations for obtaining desired strength of Nylon6 and Fe powder-based composite wire for FDM feedstock filament

In the present work, an effort has been made for modelling the peak strength of Nylon6-Fe powder composite-based feedstock filament (wire) for fused deposition modelling (FDM) process. The developed filament has been used to prepare functional prototypes with ferromagnetic characteristics. The methodology involves the use of historical data approach of response surface...

Thermal properties of 3-D printed polylactic acid-metal composites

Standard fused filament fabrication (FFF)-based 3-D printers fabricate parts from thermopolymers, such as polylactic acid (PLA). A new range of metal based PLA composites are available providing a novel range of potential engineering materials for such 3-D printers. Currently, limited material data, specifically thermal property characterization is available on these composites...

Holistic approach for industrializing AM technology: from part selection to test and verification

Even in times where additive manufacturing has a peak in media and industry interest, only few companies have already implemented this technology. Many companies struggle with the use of AM even if they have already identified the benefits of this technology for their business. Additional knowledge along the whole product development chain is necessary to succeed in implementing...

The ultrasonic burnishing of cobalt-chrome and stainless steel surface made by additive manufacturing

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the post-processing of Co-Cr and 316L stainless steel components made by additive manufacturing (AM) using ultrasonic burnishing. AM is able to produce functional parts for medical and industrial applications; however, the parts require support removal and post-processing to achieve the technical requirements. To this end, ultrasonic...

Optimization of selective laser sintering process parameters to achieve the maximum density and hardness in polyamide parts

Density and hardness of selective laser-sintered parts are influenced by the different sintering parameters. The selection of sintering parameters plays a vital role to achieve the high precision of end use functional parts. These parts are widely used in the industries such as automobile, aerospace, and for medical applications [Sustarsic et al. (Mater Manuf Process 24:837–841...

Database development for additive manufacturing

Additive manufacturing (AM) of metallics is a technology that is poised to revolutionize the way the aerospace industry manufactures propulsion hardware. The additive manufacturing laboratory at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center increasingly uses AM as a manufacturing technique to support development of lower cost propulsion systems. In a typical AM build, witness test coupons...

Evaluation of monitoring methods for electron beam melting powder bed fusion additive manufacturing technology

In-process process sensing and monitoring is being incorporated across additive manufacturing technologies due to the need for part qualification. Implementation of additively manufactured end-use parts has been hindered by the inherent process variability and anisotropy that adversely affect part performance. Process monitoring methods have the potential to ensure fabrication...

Microstructural design of Ni-base alloys for high-temperature applications: impact of heat treatment on microstructure and mechanical properties after selective laser melting

Optimising the microstructure and mechanical performance of Ni-base alloys is vital to achieve higher efficiencies in many high-temperature applications. With the recent emergence of the additive manufacturing technologies, new possibilities with respect to freedom of design and microstructure manipulation are opened up. This study aims at adjusting a microstructure suited for...