Behavioural Neurology

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bn/

List of Papers (Total 1,390)

Syndrome-Specific Deficits of Performance and Effects of Practice on Arm Movements with Deafferentation due to Posterior Thalamic Lesion

Aiming and tapping movements were analysed repeatedly over a three-week period in a patient who was hemideafferented due to an ischaemic posterior thalamic lesion. Contrasting behaviour observed in six healthy subjects, nine hemiparetic patients and one patient with hemianopic stroke, allowed the determination of behavioural deficits related to deafferentation. Finger tapping was...

Molecular Mechanisms of Neurodegeneration Related to C9orf72 Hexanucleotide Repeat Expansion

Two clinically distinct diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), have recently been classified as two extremes of the FTD/ALS spectrum. The neuropathological correlate of FTD is frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), characterized by tau-, TDP-43-, and FUS-immunoreactive neuronal inclusions. An earlier discovery that a hexanucleotide...

Psychiatric Assessment in Patients with Mild Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

Objectives. The findings of previous studies focused on personality disorders in epileptic patients are difficult to interpret due to nonhomogeneous samples and noncomparable methods. Here, we aimed at studying the personality profile in patients with mild temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) with psychiatric comorbidity. Materials and Methods. Thirty-five patients with mTLE (22 males...

Convulsive Pseudoseizures: A Review of Current Concepts

Convulsive pseudoseizures thought to represent psychiatric disease can usually be detected early if they are considered in the epileptologist's differential diagnosis. No single diagnostic criterion for this behavioural disorder is known to be pathognomonic. Epilepsy and all physiological explanations have to be thoroughly ruled out and positive evidence of relevant...

Palinopsia: A Review of the Literature

The literature on palinopsia (visual perseveration) is reviewed, utilizing case reports of 46 patients who demonstrated this symptom. The most common etiologies for this symptom are space-occupying lesions, cerebral infarct, and seizure activity. The vast majority are due to central nervous system pathology occurring in the posterior (occipital or parieto-occipital) region, often...

Posterior Fossa Tumours Presenting to Psychiatrists

Posterior fossa tumours may in their early stages give rise to dizziness, nausea and subjective unsteadiness. Such symptoms are commonly accompanied by psychological distress and are not always easy to diagnose. In the presence of a past psychiatric history, they may be wrongly interpreted as exacerbations of neurotic disorder. Two examples of this are given. Because of the...

A 54-Point Verbal-Performance IQ Discrepancy on the WISC-R: Cognitive Functioning of a Child from an Alternative School

Marked WISC-R verbal-performance discrepancy commonly leads to the assumption that such children have brain pathology or cognitive disorders. Children without brain dysfunction may also exhibit wide discrepancy, but a discrepancy score of 30 is assumed to occur in only 2% of the population. The actual investigation presents an 11-year-old child showing a 54-point discrepancy...

Behavioral Disorders in Association with Posterior Callosal and Frontal Cerebral Infarction

Behavioral disorders were a prominent clinical feature after the surgical treatment of an anterior communicating artery aneurysm rupture in a 44-year-old man. Callosal apraxia was associated with an alien hand. The latter remained 1 year after surgery while diagonistic apraxia disappeared after 3 months. Other callosal signs included left agraphia, tactile anomia and auditory...

Confabulations Related to Tacit Awareness in Visual Neglect

The case of a man with left-sided visuospatial neglect is reported. His performance on a test for neglect, the “burning house test”, is analysed and compared with that of other patients referred to in the literature. We suggest that the confabulations neglect patients may produce when confronted with this test reflect the degree of preconscious awareness for left-sided features.

A selective agraphia of Kana

We report a patient who developed selective Kana (phonogram) agraphia following an infarct in the left middle frontal gyrus known as Exner's area. He had well-preserved ability for comprehension, reading, and writing Kanji (ideogram). Kana errors consisted of substitution with another letter while the number of target words was well preserved. It is suggested that a dominant...

Pathways and Patterns of Cell Loss in Verified Alzheimer’s Disease: A Factor and Cluster Analysis of Clinico-Pathological Subgroups

Thirty-seven patients with neuropathologically verified Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been studied prospectively. A principal components analysis of neuron numbers in cortical and subcortical areas revealed two variables: Variable I with high loadings for the hippocampo-parahippocampo-parietal neuron counts and Variable II with high loadings for coeruleo-frontal cell numbers...

Contact with a Nurse Practitioner: A Short-Term Evaluation Study in Parkinson’s Disease and Dystonia

Forty patients with Parkinson's disease and 24 patients with dystonia took part in a study aiming to assess the value of access to and contact with a nurse practitioner over a 6 month period. Patients in each group were randomly allocated to “intervention” or “control” groups, which were matched on important variables. All patients completed a set of questionnaires relating to...

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease with Mixed Transcortical Aphasia: Insights into Echolalia

Aphasia is a common manifestation of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), and investigation of the linguistic disorders of CJD patients may provide insights into the neurobiological mechanisms of language and aphasia. We report an autopsy-confirmed case of CJD in which the presenting symptom was change in language abilities. The patient ultimately evidenced mixed transcortical...

Syndrome-Specific Deficits of Performance and Effects of Practice on Arm Movements with Deafferentation due to Posterior Thalamic Lesion

Aiming and tapping movements were analysed repeatedly over a three-week period in a patient who was hemideafferented due to an ischaemic posterior thalamic lesion. Contrasting behaviour observed in six healthy subjects, nine hemiparetic patients and one patient with hemianopic stroke, allowed the determination of behavioural deficits related to deafferentation. Finger tapping was...

SPECT Findings in Alzheimer’s Disease and Parkinson’s Disease with Dementia

We examined, with single photon emission tomography (SPECT) and (99mTc)-HMPAO, 18 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and no dementia (PD), 12 patients with PD and dementia, 24 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 14 controls. While the three patient groups showed significantly lower perfusion in frontal inferior and temporal inferior areas as compared to...

Emotional Processing following Cortical and Subcortical Brain Damage: Contribution of the Fronto-Striatal Circuitry

The present study examined the differential contribution of cortical and subcortical brain structures in emotional processing by comparing patients with focal cortical lesions (n = 32) to those with primarily subcortical dysregulation of the basal ganglia (Parkinson’s disease n = 14). A standardized measure of emotional perception (Tübingen Affect Battery) was used. Only patients...

Storage of Verbal Associations Is Sufficient to Activate the Left Medial Temporal Lobe

Neuroimaging studies have shown that memory encoding activates the medial temporal lobe (MTL). Many believe that these activations are related to novelty but it remains unproven which is critical - novelty detection or the rich associative encoding it triggers. We examined MTL activation during verbal associative encoding using functional magnetic resonance imaging. First...

Neurological Soft Signs in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Standardised Assessment and Comparison with Schizophrenia

While several studies have detected raised levels of neurological soft signs in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), the specificity of these abnormalities remains uncertain. This study used a new standardised measure, the Cambridge Neurological Inventory (CNI), to assess soft signs in 51 subjects with OCD. Comparison was made with data on patients with...

Probing Cortical Sites of Antipsychotic Drug Action with in vivo Receptor Imaging

Imaging receptors using radioactive ligands has allowed direct determination of the sites of action of antipsychotic drugs. Initial studies relating antipsychotic drug efficacy to action at striatal dopamine D2-like receptors have recently been undermined. Developments in imaging extrastriatal dopamine D2-like receptors suggest rather that antagonism of these receptors in the...

Subcortical Hypoperfusion following Surgery For Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Haemorrhage: Implications For Cognitive Performance?

The incidence and severity of cognitive deficits after surgery for aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage and their relationship to aneurysm site remains controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of regional cerebral blood flow which exists in patients one year post-surgery and to identify whether different patterns exist which may be related to the type of...

Memory and Executive Function Impairments after Frontal or Posterior Cortex Lesions

Free recall and recognition, memory for temporal order, spatial memory and prospective memory were assessed in patients with frontal lobe lesions, patients with posterior cortex lesions and control subjects. Both patient groups showed equivalent memory deficits relative to control subjects on a range of free recall and recognition tasks, on memory for temporal order and on a...