Behavioural Neurology

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bn/

List of Papers (Total 1,704)

Convulsive Tic Disorder Georges Gilles de la Tourette, Guinon and Grasset on the Phenomenology and Psychopathology of Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome

Gilles de la Tourette gained eponymous fame when he described nine cases of multiple tics, coprolalia and echolalia, and later he, Guinon and Grasset were the first to document the psychopathology of the Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. In particular, they noted the association between obsessional thoughts and behaviours and the tic disorder. In this paper we present the first...

Crossed Non-Dominant Hemisphere Syndrome in a Right-Hander

A right-handed patient with a large left temporo-parietal infarction manifested various non-dominant hemisphere signs. He had two left-handed children. On neurobehavioural examinations, he did not show aphasia or ideomotor apraxia, but did show hemispatial neglect, spatial agraphia, constructional apraxia, auditory and tactile extinction, anosodiaphoria and affective changes, all...

Seeing without the Occipito-Parietal Cortex: Simultagnosia as a Shrinkage of the Attentional Visual Field

Following bi-parietal lesions patient AT showed a severe inability to relocate her attention within a visual field which perimetry proved to be near-normal. An experimental approach with tasks testing visuo-spatial attention demonstrated a shrinkage of A.T.’s attentional visual field. With her visual attention narrowed to a kind of functional tunnel vision, the patient exhibited...

Enhancement of Phonological Memory Following Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)

Phonologically similar items (mell, rell, gell) are more difficult to remember than dissimilar items (shen, floy, stap), likely because of mutual interference of the items in the phonological store. Low-frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), guided by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to disrupt this phonological confusion by stimulation of the...

Effect of Distorted Visual Feedback on the Sense of Agency

It has been hypothesized that an internal model is involved in controlling and recognizing one’s own actions (action attribution). This results from a comparison process between the predicted sensory feedback of the action and its real sensory consequences. The aim of the present study is to distinguish the respective importance of two action parameters (time and direction) on...

Epilepsy, Consciousness and Neurostimulation

Consciousness is often disrupted in epilepsy. This may involve altered responsiveness or changes in awareness of self and subjective experiences. Subcortical arousal systems and paralimbic fronto-parietal association cortices are thought to underpin current concepts of consciousness. The Network Inhibition Hypothesis proposes a common neuroanatomical substrate for impaired...

Demonstrating the Qualitative Differences between Semantic Aphasia and Semantic Dementia: A Novel Exploration of Nonverbal Semantic Processing

Semantic dementia (SD) implicates the anterior temporal lobes (ATL) as a critical substrate for semantic memory. Multi-modal semantic impairment can also be a feature of post-stroke aphasia (referred to here as “semantic aphasia” or SA) where patients show impaired regulatory control accompanied by lesions to the frontal and/or temporo-parietal cortices, and thus the two patient...

Some Personality Variables in Functional Neurological Disorders

Patients with spasmodic torticollis, writer's cramp and the Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS) were given rating scales to assess personality dimensions, especially hostility and obsessionality. The data have been compared with age and sex matched controls. Significant differences arose, especially for hostility for the GTS and writer's cramp patients, whereas those with...

Varieties of Pathological Self-Mutilation

Pathological self-mutilation appears as a non-specific symptom as well as a specific syndrome. Since psychotic persons may commit horrifying acts, such as enucleation of an eye or amputation of a body part, identification of high risk patients is crucial. Stereotypical self-mutilation, such as head banging and biting off of fingertips, is associated with mental retardation and...

The Dysexecutive Syndrome Associated with Ischaemic Vascular Disease and Related Subcortical Neuropathology: A Boston Process Approach

The introduction of diagnostic criteria for vascular dementia has helped to re-define the impact of various subcortical neuropathologies on aging; however, state-of-the-art neuroimaging techniques and autopsy studies suggest that not all structural brain alterations associated with vascular dementia are exclusive to this neurodegenerative process alone. Thus, a detailed analysis...

The Relationship of Clinical, Cognitive and Social Measures in Schizophrenia: A Preliminary Finding Combining Measures in Probands and Relatives

This study examines performance of schizophrenia patients, unaffected relatives and controls in social cognition, cognitive and psychiatric scales looking for possible markers of vulnerability in schizophrenia. Performance of schizophrenia patients from multiplex families, first-degree relatives, and matched controls was compared and, subsequently, discriminant analysis method...

EEG Alpha Band Synchrony Predicts Cognitive and Motor Performance in Patients with Ischemic Stroke

Functional brain networks are known to be affected by focal brain lesions. However, the clinical relevance of these changes remains unclear. This study assesses resting-state functional connectivity (FC) with electroencephalography (EEG) and relates observed topography of FC to cognitive and motor deficits in patients three months after ischemic stroke. Twenty patients (mean age...

“Alice in Wonderland” Syndrome: A Manifestation of Infectious Mononucleosis in Children

The association between “Alice in Wonderland” Syndrome (AWS) and infectious mononucleosis (IM) has been previously described in three patients. We describe two additional cases in children, where in one case, the visual symptoms of AWS appeared during the course of active IM and in the second, 2 weeks following a clinically mild, but serologically proven attack.

Crossed Non-Dominant Hemisphere Syndrome in a Right-Hander

A right-handed patient with a large left temporo-parietal infarction manifested various non-dominant hemisphere signs. He had two left-handed children. On neurobehavioural examinations, he did not show aphasia or ideomotor apraxia, but did show hemispatial neglect, spatial agraphia, constructional apraxia, auditory and tactile extinction, anosodiaphoria and affective changes, all...

Attitudes Toward Predictive Testing for Alzheimer’s Disease in a Student Population

Attitudes toward predictive testing for Alzheimer’s disease and knowledge about this disease were investigated in a group of medical and psychology students. Overall, knowledge was poor and their own chance of getting Alzheimer’s disease was mostly perceived as small. About half the students thought the development of a predictive test for Alzheimer’s disease important, while the...

Involuntary Vocalisations and a Complex Hyperkinetic Movement Disorder Following Left Side Thalamic Haemorrhage

A variety of involuntary speech phenomena as for example palilalia have been described as consequences of neurological disorders. Palilalia is the involuntary repetition of syllabels, words and phrases in ongoing speech. We describe a 73 year old woman who suffered from a hypertensive thalamic haemorrhage. MRI revealed that the lesion was predominantly located within the pulvinar...

Anton’s Syndrome following Callosal Disconnection

Anosognosia for cortical blindness, also called Anton’s syndrome, is a rare neurological disorder usually following bilateral lesions to occipital cortices. Neuropsychological, morphological and functional neuroimaging (SPECT and fMRI) findings are reported in a patient who incurred Anton’s syndrome after an ischaemic lesion confined to the left occipital lobe involving the...

The Diagnostic Role of Serum Inflammatory and Soluble Proteins on Dementia Subtypes: Correlation with Cognitive and Functional Decline

In the past years, the possible involvement of inflammation in the pathogenesis of dementia has been the subject of several investigations. However there are restricted data about the profile of the inflammatory and soluble proteins in well evaluated Alzheimer’s disease (AD), vascular dementia (VD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and healthy controls. There are also no reliable...

Effect of Distorted Visual Feedback on the Sense of Agency

It has been hypothesized that an internal model is involved in controlling and recognizing one’s own actions (action attribution). This results from a comparison process between the predicted sensory feedback of the action and its real sensory consequences. The aim of the present study is to distinguish the respective importance of two action parameters (time and direction) on...