Neuro-Oncology

http://neuro-oncology.oxfordjournals.org

List of Papers (Total 1,388)

Baseline pretreatment contrast enhancing tumor volume including central necrosis is a prognostic factor in recurrent glioblastoma: evidence from single and multicenter trials

Background. The prognostic significance of baseline contrast enhancing tumor prior to second- or third-line therapy in recurrent glioblastoma (GBM) for overall survival (OS) remains controversial, particularly in the context of repeated surgical resection and/or use of anti-angiogenic therapy. In the current study, we examined recurrent GBM patients from both single and...

Fatty acid oxidation is required for the respiration and proliferation of malignant glioma cells

Background. Glioma is the most common form of primary malignant brain tumor in adults, with approximately 4 cases per 100 000 people each year. Gliomas, like many tumors, are thought to primarily metabolize glucose for energy production; however, the reliance upon glycolysis has recently been called into question. In this study, we aimed to identify the metabolic fuel...

Seizure control as a new metric in assessing efficacy of tumor treatment in low-grade glioma trials

Patients with low-grade glioma frequently have brain tumor–related epilepsy, which is more common than in patients with high-grade glioma. Treatment for tumor-associated epilepsy usually comprises a combination of surgery, anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs), chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Response to tumor-directed treatment is measured primarily by overall survival and progression...

Reporting of patient-reported health-related quality of life in adults with diffuse low-grade glioma: a systematic review

Background Patient-reported health-related quality of life (HRQoL) analysis can provide important information for managing the balance between treatment benefits and treatment-related adverse effects on quality of life (QoL). This systematic review sought to identify the range of HRQoL measures used for patients with diffuse hemispheric WHO grade II glioma (DLGG) and assess the...

Upfront bevacizumab may extend survival for glioblastoma patients who do not receive second-line therapy: an exploratory analysis of AVAglio

Background In this post-hoc, exploratory analysis, we examined outcomes for patients enrolled in the AVAglio trial of front-line bevacizumab or placebo plus radiotherapy/temozolomide who received only a single line of therapy.

Autocrine VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 signaling promotes survival in human glioblastoma models in vitro and in vivo

Background Although the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/VEGF receptor (VEGFR) system has become a prime target for antiangiogenic treatment, its biological role in glioblastoma beyond angiogenesis has remained controversial.

Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology working group and European Association for Neuro-Oncology recommendations for the clinical use of PET imaging in gliomas

This guideline provides recommendations for the use of PET imaging in gliomas. The review examines established clinical benefit in glioma patients of PET using glucose (18F-FDG) and amino acid tracers (11C-MET, 18F-FET, and 18F-FDOPA). An increasing number of studies have been published on PET imaging in the setting of diagnosis, biopsy, and resection as well radiotherapy...

Magnetic resonance analysis of malignant transformation in recurrent glioma

Background Patients with low-grade glioma (LGG) have a relatively long survival, and a balance is often struck between treating the tumor and impacting quality of life. While lesions may remain stable for many years, they may also undergo malignant transformation (MT) at the time of recurrence and require more aggressive intervention. Here we report on a state-of-the-art...

The cost-effectiveness of tumor-treating fields therapy in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma

Background There is strong concern about the costs associated with adding tumor-treating fields (TTF) therapy to standard first-line treatment for glioblastoma (GBM). Hence, we aimed to determine the cost-effectiveness of TTF therapy for the treatment of newly diagnosed patients with GBM.

Updates in the management of brain metastases

The clinical management/understanding of brain metastases (BM) has changed substantially in the last 5 years, with key advances and clinical trials highlighted in this review. Several of these changes stem from improvements in systemic therapy, which have led to better systemic control and longer overall patient survival, associated with increased time at risk for developing BM...

Epilepsy in glioma patients: mechanisms, management, and impact of anticonvulsant therapy

Seizures are a well-recognized symptom of primary brain tumors, and anticonvulsant use is common. This paper provides an overview of epilepsy and the use of anticonvulsants in glioma patients. Overall incidence and mechanisms of epileptogenesis are reviewed. Factors to consider with the use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) including incidence during the disease trajectory and...

Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors—current concepts, advances in biology, and potential future therapies

Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is the most common malignant CNS tumor of children below 6 months of age. The majority of AT/RTs demonstrate genomic alterations in SMARCB1 (INI1, SNF5, BAF47) or, to a lesser extent, SMARCA4 (BRG1) of the SWItch/sucrose nonfermentable chromatin remodeling complex. Recent transcription and methylation profiling studies suggest the...

TNF-α enhancement of CD62E mediates adhesion of non–small cell lung cancer cells to brain endothelium via CD15 in lung-brain metastasis

Background CD15, which is overexpressed on various cancers, has been reported as a cell adhesion molecule that plays a key role in non-CNS metastasis. However, the role of CD15 in brain metastasis is largely unexplored. This study provides a better understanding of CD15/CD62E interaction, enhanced by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and its correlation with brain metastasis in...

MiR-138 exerts anti-glioma efficacy by targeting immune checkpoints

Background Antibody therapeutic targeting of the immune checkpoints cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated molecule 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) has demonstrated marked tumor regression in clinical trials. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can modulate multiple gene transcripts including possibly more than one immune checkpoint and could be exploited as immune therapeutics.

Therapeutic advances for the tumors associated with neurofibromatosis type 1, type 2, and schwannomatosis

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2), and schwannomatosis (SWN) are tumor-suppressor syndromes. Each syndrome is an orphan disease; however, the tumors that arise within them represent the most common tumors of the nervous system worldwide. Systematic investigation of the pathways impacted by the loss of function of neurofibromin (encoded by NF1) and...

A malignant cellular network in gliomas: potential clinical implications

The recent discovery of distinct, ultra-long, and highly functional membrane protrusions in gliomas, particularly in astrocytomas, extends our understanding of how these tumors progress in the brain and how they resist therapies. In this article, we will focus on ideas on how to target these membrane protrusions, for which we have suggested the term “tumor microtubes” (TMs), and...

Physiologic MRI for assessment of response to therapy and prognosis in glioblastoma

Aside from bidimensional measurements from conventional contrast-enhanced MRI, there are no validated or FDA-qualified imaging biomarkers for high-grade gliomas. However, advanced functional MRI techniques, including perfusion- and diffusion-weighted MRI, have demonstrated much potential for determining prognosis, predicting therapeutic response, and assessing early treatment...

Nuclear factor-κB in glioblastoma: insights into regulators and targeted therapy

Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is a ubiquitous transcription factor that regulates multiple aspects of cancer formation, growth, and treatment response. Glioblastoma (GBM), the most common primary malignant tumor of the central nervous system, is characterized by molecular heterogeneity, resistance to therapy, and high NF-κB activity. In this review, we examine the mechanisms by which...

Current status and future directions of anti-angiogenic therapy for gliomas

Molecular targets for the pathological vasculature are the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/VEGF receptor axis, integrins, angiopoietins, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), as well as several intracellular or downstream effectors like protein kinase C beta and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Besides hypoxic damage or tumor cell starvation...

Integration of 2-hydroxyglutarate-proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy into clinical practice for disease monitoring in isocitrate dehydrogenase-mutant glioma

Background The majority of WHO grades II and III gliomas harbor a missense mutation in the metabolic gene isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) and accumulate the metabolite R-2-hydroxyglutarate (R-2HG). Prior studies showed that this metabolite can be detected in vivo using proton magnetic-resonance spectroscopy (MRS), but the sensitivity of this methodology and its clinical...

Vascular biomarkers derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI predict response of vestibular schwannoma to antiangiogenic therapy in type 2 neurofibromatosis

Background Antiangiogenic therapy of vestibular schwannoma (VS) in type 2 neurofibromatosis can produce tumor shrinkage with response rates of 40%–60%. This study examines the predictive value of parameter-derived MRI in this setting.

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor genetic polymorphism (rs6265) is protective against chemotherapy-associated cognitive impairment in patients with early-stage breast cancer

Background Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neurotrophin that regulates neuronal function and development, is implicated in several neurodegenerative conditions. Preliminary data suggest that a reduction of BDNF concentrations may lead to postchemotherapy cognitive impairment. We hypothesized that a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs6265) of the BDNF gene may...

PD-L1 expression and prognostic impact in glioblastoma

Background Therapeutic targeting of the immune checkpoints cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated molecule-4 (CTLA-4) and PD-1/PD-L1 has demonstrated tumor regression in clinical trials, and phase 2 trials are ongoing in glioblastoma (GBM). Previous reports have suggested that responses are more frequent in patients with tumors that express PD-L1; however, this has been disputed. At...

Years of potential life lost for brain and CNS tumors relative to other cancers in adults in the United States, 2010

Background Years of potential life lost (YPLL) complement incidence and survival rates by measuring how much a patient's life is likely to be shortened by his or her cancer. In this study, we examine the impact of death due to brain and other central nervous system (CNS) tumors compared to other common cancers in adults by investigating the YPLL of adults in the United States.