Applied Physics A

http://link.springer.com/journal/339

List of Papers (Total 330)

Particulate reduction in PLD-grown crystalline films via bi-directional target irradiation

We present a novel variation of the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique, aimed at reducing the number of particulates produced and consequently the linear propagation loss observed in the resulting crystal waveguides. The approach relies upon configuring the system to effectively provide bi-directional ablation, whereby the incidence angle of the fixed pulsed laser beam with...

Defects and their range in pure bismuth irradiated with swift Xe ions studied by positron annihilation techniques

Investigations of defects and their spatial distribution in Bi irradiated with 167 MeV Xe26+ ions of different doses have been performed using conventional positron lifetime spectroscopy and variable energy positron beam. In an implanted layer, in which ions are traveling, interacting with atoms and stopping, only clusters which consist of more than eight vacancies were found. It...

Erbium-doped chalcogenide glass thin film on silicon using femtosecond pulsed laser with different deposition temperatures

The properties of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide thin films prepared on a silicon substrate by femtosecond pulsed laser deposition were studied as a function of process temperature. The films were characterised using transition electron microscopy imaging, X-ray diffractometry, Raman spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and UV–Vis–NIR spectroscopy. The results show...

Microstructure and physical properties of the multicomponent PZT-type ceramics doped by calcium, sodium, bismuth and cadmium

In this work, the multicomponent Pb(Zr0.58Ti0.42)O3 ceramics doped by calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), bismuth (Bi) and cadmium (Cd) was designed and obtained by the hot uniaxial pressing method. Comprehensive electrophysical properties including crystalline structure, microstructure, dielectric, electromechanical and piezoelectric of the ceramics were made. The Pb0.92Ca0.02Na0.01Bi0...

Si beam-assisted graphitization of SiC (0001)

We have performed a study of thermal graphitization of SiC (0001) surface in the high-purity molecular beam of Si atoms obtained from a controllable source. With the aid of Si beam, we have been able to achieve the semi-equilibrium reaction conditions and to control the growth rate of graphene film freely until complete stop of the graphitization, at the test temperature of 1350...

The role of laser pulse overlap in ultrafast thin film structuring applications

In this work, we demonstrate the importance of laser pulse overlap in controlling the ablation process of a thin film just above the single pulse material ablation threshold. A 532 nm, 15 ps ultrafast diode pump solid-state (DPSS) laser has been employed to pattern a gold alloy source–drain layer during the production of organic thin film transistor (OTFT) for flexible display...

Effect of growth time on structural, morphological and electrical properties of tungsten oxide nanowire

In this work, tungsten oxide nanowires were grown directly on a tungsten substrate in 800 °C using thermal evaporation method in a horizontal tube furnace. The effect of growth time on structural, morphological, elemental composition and electrical properties of the tungsten oxide nanostructures was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron...

Comprehensive investigation of the interfacial misfit array formation in GaSb/GaAs material system

A comprehensive investigation of the interfacial misfit (IMF) array formation has been carried out. The studies were based on the static phase diagram for GaAs (001) surface and As2 dimers on the surface. Prior to the initiation of the GaSb growth two attempts of the temperature decreasing were performed: before and after the GaAs termination. The GaAs was grown in the optimal...

Damage range in swift Xe26+ ion-irradiated polycrystalline iron and silver studied by positron annihilation technique, long-range effect

Investigations of defects and their spatial distribution in iron and silver irradiated with swift Xe26+ ions of different energies: 18.5, 45.5, 122.5 and 167 MeV have been performed using conventional positron lifetime spectroscopy. In the implanted layer, in which the ions are stopped, dislocations and clusters of vacancies were found in iron and only dislocations in sliver. In...

193 nm ArF laser ablation and patterning of chitosan thin films

This paper reports laser ablation studies on spin-coated biopolymer chitosan films, β-l,4-1inked 2-amino-2-deoxy-d-glucopyranose. Chitosan has been irradiated using an ArF laser emitting at 193 nm. An ablation threshold of FT = 85±8 mJ cm−2 has been determined from etch rate measurements. Laser-ablated chitosan is characterised using white light interferometry, scanning electron...

X-ray emission as a potential hazard during ultrashort pulse laser material processing

In laser machining with ultrashort laser pulses unwanted X-ray radiation in the keV range can be generated when a critical laser intensity is exceeded. Even if the emitted X-ray dose per pulse is low, high laser repetition rates can lead to an accumulation of X-ray doses beyond exposure safety limits. For 925 fs pulse duration at a center wavelength of 1030 nm, the X-ray emission...

Femtosecond laser-induced herringbone patterns

Femtosecond laser-induced herringbone patterns are formed on copper (Cu). These novel periodic structures are created following s-polarized, large incident angle, femtosecond laser pulses. Forming as slanted and axially symmetric laser-induced periodic surface structures along the side walls of ablated channels, the result is a series of v-shaped structures that resemble a...

The effects of bauxite, metakaolin, and porosity on the thermal properties of prepared Iraqi clays refractory mortars

One of the most important requirements for the manufacture of refractory mortars, especially those used in the construction of thermal systems (building or plastering), is the balance between thermal insulation properties and porosity. Where, increasing porosity of mortar to a large amount may be always undesirable, because the absorption of liquid and gases emitted from...

Three-dimensional direct laser written graphitic electrical contacts to randomly distributed components

The development of cost-effective electrical packaging for randomly distributed micro/nano-scale devices is a widely recognized challenge for fabrication technologies. Three-dimensional direct laser writing (DLW) has been proposed as a solution to this challenge, and has enabled the creation of rapid and low resistance graphitic wires within commercial polyimide substrates. In...

Tribological performance of titanium samples oxidized by fs-laser radiation, thermal heating, or electrochemical anodization

Commercial grade-1 titanium samples (Ti, 99.6%) were treated using three alternative methods, (i) femtosecond laser processing, (ii) thermal heat treatment, and (iii) electrochemical anodization, respectively, resulting in the formation of differently conditioned superficial titanium oxide layers. The laser processing (i) was carried out by a Ti:sapphire laser (pulse duration 30...

Hyperspectral imaging and multivariate analysis in the dried blood spots investigations

The aim of this study was to apply a new methodology using the combination of the hyperspectral imaging and the dry blood spot (DBS) collecting. Application of the hyperspectral imaging is fast and non-destructive. DBS method offers the advantage also on the micro-invasive blood collecting and low volume of required sample. During experimental step, the reflected light was...

In-volume structuring of silicon using picosecond laser pulses

We have demonstrated for the first time the permanent local modification of the bulk of silicon by repeated illumination with infrared (1.55 μm) picosecond pulses. Furthermore, we evaluated the characteristics of inscribing permanent modifications in the bulk material for different pulse durations from 0.8 to 10 ps in terms of their reproducibility and controllability of their...

Fluorescent carbon and graphene oxide nanoparticles synthesized by the laser ablation in liquid

The results of synthesis of the fluorescent carbon dots (CDots) from graphite target and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanoparticles performed by the nanosecond laser ablation in polyethylene glycol 200 (PEG200) are shown. Two-step laser irradiation (first graphite target, next achieved suspension) revealed a very effective production of CDots. However, the ablation in PEG...

The structure and mechanical properties of AlMg5Si2Mn alloy after surface alloying by the use of fiber laser

Laser surface treatment is successfully applied to increase hardness as well as corrosion and wear resistance in light alloys such as aluminum or magnesium. The laser surface remelting also can be used to repair superficial cracks, voids or porosity caused by the mechanical impact, metallurgical process as well as the corrosive environment on the surface of the aluminum alloy...