Journal of Diabetes Research

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/

List of Papers (Total 2,670)

The Burden of Undiagnosed Diabetes Mellitus in Adult African Population: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Background. The prevalence of diabetes is rapidly increasing in Africa. Type two diabetes may remain undetected for many years, leading to severe complications and healthcare costs. This underlines the importance of understanding the magnitude of undiagnosed diabetes in different populations of Africa. This study is intended to summarize and pool the results of community-based...

Correlation Between Pancreatic Islet Uncoupling Protein-2 (UCP2) mRNA Concentration And Insulin Status in Rats

Hypothesizing that UCP2 may influence insulin secretion by modifying the ATP/ADP ratio within pancreatic islets, we have investigated the expression of intraislet UCP2 gene in rats showing insulin oversecretion (non-diabetic Zucker fa/fa obese rats, glucose-infused Wistar rats) or insulin undersecretion (fasting and mildly diabetic rats). We found that in Zucker fa/fa obese rats...

A Thiazolidinedione Improves In Vivo Insulin Action on Skeletal Muscle Glycogen Synthase in Insulin-Resistant Monkeys

Thiazolidinediones (TZD) have been shown to have anti-diabetic effects including the ability to decrease fasting hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, increase insulin-mediated glucose disposal rate (M) and decrease hepatic glucose production, but the mechanisms of action are not well established. To determine whether a TZD (R-102380, Sankyo Company Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) could...

Adaptive Optics (rtx1) High-Resolution Imaging of Photoreceptors and Retinal Arteries in Patients with Diabetic Retinopathy

Background. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of impaired vision in patients with diabetes mellitus. An adaptive optics retinal camera (rtx1™; Imagine Eyes, France) was used to capture images of cones and retinal arteries from patients with DR. Objective. Cone parameters (density, interphotoreceptor distance, and regularity) and retinal artery parameters (wall...

A Liquid-Based Cytology System, without the Use of Cytocentrifugation, for Detection of Podocytes in Urine Samples of Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy

Objective. Podocytes have highly differentiated functions and are extremely difficult to grow; thus, damage of podocytes is associated with glomerular dysfunction. Desquamated podocytes can be detected in urine of patients with severe renal impairment. Unlike the rapidly progressive glomerular damage in glomerulonephritis, only a few desquamated podocytes are usually detected in...

Does Body Mass Index and Height Influence the Incident Risk of Ischemic Stroke in Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Subjects?

Objective. To estimate the incident risk of ischemic stroke (IS) in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D) subjects according to different body mass index (BMI) and height categories. Methods. A total of 25,130 newly diagnosed T2D subjects were included in this study. All T2D subjects were enrolled consecutively from the Chronic Disease Surveillance System (CDSS) of Ningbo...

Effects of an Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Education on Patients with Type 2 Diabetes in China: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Objective. This study is aimed at assessing the effectiveness of a simple outpatient diabetes self-management education programme. Methods. In the study, 60 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomly allocated into the control group () and intervention group (). Regular and 2-session health education programmes were provided. The summary of diabetes self-care activity...

Role of Adaptive and Innate Immunity in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

After the recognition of the essential role of the immune system in the progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus, more studies are focused on the effects produced by the abnormal differentiation of components of the immune system. In patients suffering from obesity or T2DM, there were alterations in proliferation of T cells and macrophages, and impairment in function of NK cells...

Octreotide, a Somatostatin Analogue, Fails to Inhibit Hypoxia-induced Retinal Neovascularization in the Neonatal Rat

Objective: Octreotide, a somatostatin analogue, has been shown to prevent angiogenesis in diverse in vitro models. We evaluated its effect on retinal neovascularization in vivo, using a neonatal rat retinopathy model.

A New Spontaneously Diabetic Non-obese Torii Rat Strain With Severe Ocular Complications

A new spontaneously diabetic strain of the Sprague-Dawley rat was established in 1997 and named the SDT (Spontaneously Diabetic Torii) rat. In this research, we investigated the characteristics of the disease condition in the SDT rats. The time of onset of glucosuria was different between male and female SDT rats; glucosuria appeared at approximately 20 weeks of age in male rats...

Correlation Between Pancreatic Islet Uncoupling Protein-2 (UCP2) mRNA Concentration And Insulin Status in Rats

Hypothesizing that UCP2 may influence insulin secretion by modifying the ATP/ADP ratio within pancreatic islets, we have investigated the expression of intraislet UCP2 gene in rats showing insulin oversecretion (non-diabetic Zucker fa/fa obese rats, glucose-infused Wistar rats) or insulin undersecretion (fasting and mildly diabetic rats). We found that in Zucker fa/fa obese rats...

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Human C-peptide Dose Dependently Prevents Early Neuropathy in the BB/Wor-rat

In order to explore the neuroprotective and crossspecies activities of.C-peptide on type 1 diabetic neuropathy, spontaneously diabetic BB/W-rats were given increasing doses of human recombinant Cpeptide (hrC-peptide). Diabetic rats received 10, 100, 500, or 1000 μg of hrC-peptide/kg body weight/ day from onset of diabetes. After 2 months of hrC-peptide administration, 100 μg and...

Type 2 Diabetes—Effect of Compensatory Oversecretion as a Reason for β-Cell Collapse

Insulin secretion declines progressively before and during the course of type 2 diabetes. Evidence indicates that this process is, in part, secondary to increased requirement for insulin secretion that is brought about by insulin resistance and by hyperglycemia. The effects of over-secretion extend far beyond a mere reduction of available insulin stores and may cause not only...

Review: Pancreatic β-Cell Neogenesis Revisited

β-cell neogenesis triggers the generation of new β-cells from precursor cells. Neogenesis from duct epithelium is the most currently described and the best documented process of differentiation of precursor cells into β-cells. It is contributes not only to β-cell mass expansion during fetal and nonatal life but it is also involved in the maintenance of the β-cell mass in adults...

Effect of Fidarestat and α-Lipoic Acid on Diabetes-Induced Epineurial Arteriole Vascular Dysfunction

In the present study, the authors examined whether treating streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with the combination of α-lipoic acid and fidarestat, an aldose reductase inhibitor, can promote the formation of dihydrolipoic acid in diabetic animals and thereby enhance the efficacy of α-lipoic acid as monotherapy toward preventing diabetic vascular and neural dysfunction.Treating...

Anti-Insulin Receptor Autoantibodies Are Not Required for Type 2 Diabetes Pathogenesis in NZL/Lt Mice, a New Zealand Obese (NZO)-Derived Mouse Strain

The New Zealand obese (NZO) mouse strain shares with the related New Zealand black (NZB) strain a number of immunophenotypic traits. Among these is a high proportion of B-1 B lymphocytes, a subset associated with autoantibody production. Approximately 50% of NZO/HlLt males develop a chronic insulin-resistant type 2 diabetes syndrome associated with 2 unusual features: the...

Simvastatin-Induced Insulin Resistance May Be Linked to Decreased Lipid Uptake and Lipid Synthesis in Human Skeletal Muscle: the LIFESTAT Study

Background. A prevalent side-effect of simvastatin is attenuated glucose homeostasis. The underlying mechanism is unknown, but impaired lipid metabolism may provide the link. The aim of this study was to investigate whether simvastatin-treated patients had a lower capacity to oxidize lipids and reduced expression of the major proteins regulating lipid uptake, synthesis, lipolysis...

Neonatal Treatment With Beta-Cell Stimulatory Agents Reduces the Incidence of Diabetes in BB Rats

The aim of the study was to investigate whether various beta-cell stimulatory drugs, given neonatally, influence the incidence of diabetes in BB rats. Newborn BB rats were treated twice daily for 6 days and diabetes development was observed during the following 200-day study period. Compared to a diabetes incidence of 63.8% in 163 control BB rats which received saline or were...

Changes in the Growth Hormone-IGF-I Axis in Non-obese Diabetic Mice

We investigated the changes in GH-IGF-I axis in non-obese diabetic (NOD)-mice, a model of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Diabetic female NOD mice and their age- and sex-matched controls were sacrificed at 4, 14, 21 and 30 days (30d DM) after the onset of glycosuria. Serum GH levels increased and serum IGF-I levels decreased in the 30d DM group (182 ± 32% and 45 ± 24% of age...

PROLACTIN-Deficiency in Adult Offspring of Diabetic Mothers

Maternal diabetes induces fetal alterations, resulting in lasting consequences for the glucose tolerance of the offspring over several generations. In our experimental rat model, circulating prolactin, oestradiol, progesterone and corticosterone levels, known to influence insulin secretion and action, are determined in plasma of female adult offspring of mildly and severely...

Pentoxifylline Effects on Nerve Conduction Velocity and Blood Flow in Diabetic Rats

Pentoxifylline has several actions that improve blood rheology and tissue perfusion and may therefore potentially be applicable to diabetic neuropathy. The aims of this study were to ascertain whether 2 weeks of treatment with pentoxifylline could correct nerve conduction velocity and blood flow deficits in 6-week streptozotocin-diabetic rats and to examine whether the effects...

Inhibitory Effect of Diabetes on Proliferation of Vascular Smooth Muscle After Balloon Injury in Rat Aorta

The effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on cell proliferation in rat aortic intima-media, as well as on local gene expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) was studied. TGF-β1 mRNA was measured by solution hybridization and TGF-β1 protein by ELISA. Proliferation was measured by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation into DNA two days after balloon injury. All BrdU...