Journal of Diabetes Research

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/

List of Papers (Total 2,838)

Type 2 Diabetes—Effect of Compensatory Oversecretion as a Reason for β-Cell Collapse

Insulin secretion declines progressively before and during the course of type 2 diabetes. Evidence indicates that this process is, in part, secondary to increased requirement for insulin secretion that is brought about by insulin resistance and by hyperglycemia. The effects of over-secretion extend far beyond a mere reduction of available insulin stores and may cause not only...

Review: Pancreatic β-Cell Neogenesis Revisited

β-cell neogenesis triggers the generation of new β-cells from precursor cells. Neogenesis from duct epithelium is the most currently described and the best documented process of differentiation of precursor cells into β-cells. It is contributes not only to β-cell mass expansion during fetal and nonatal life but it is also involved in the maintenance of the β-cell mass in adults...

Effect of Fidarestat and α-Lipoic Acid on Diabetes-Induced Epineurial Arteriole Vascular Dysfunction

In the present study, the authors examined whether treating streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with the combination of α-lipoic acid and fidarestat, an aldose reductase inhibitor, can promote the formation of dihydrolipoic acid in diabetic animals and thereby enhance the efficacy of α-lipoic acid as monotherapy toward preventing diabetic vascular and neural dysfunction.Treating...

Anti-Insulin Receptor Autoantibodies Are Not Required for Type 2 Diabetes Pathogenesis in NZL/Lt Mice, a New Zealand Obese (NZO)-Derived Mouse Strain

The New Zealand obese (NZO) mouse strain shares with the related New Zealand black (NZB) strain a number of immunophenotypic traits. Among these is a high proportion of B-1 B lymphocytes, a subset associated with autoantibody production. Approximately 50% of NZO/HlLt males develop a chronic insulin-resistant type 2 diabetes syndrome associated with 2 unusual features: the...

Simvastatin-Induced Insulin Resistance May Be Linked to Decreased Lipid Uptake and Lipid Synthesis in Human Skeletal Muscle: the LIFESTAT Study

Background. A prevalent side-effect of simvastatin is attenuated glucose homeostasis. The underlying mechanism is unknown, but impaired lipid metabolism may provide the link. The aim of this study was to investigate whether simvastatin-treated patients had a lower capacity to oxidize lipids and reduced expression of the major proteins regulating lipid uptake, synthesis, lipolysis...

Neonatal Treatment With Beta-Cell Stimulatory Agents Reduces the Incidence of Diabetes in BB Rats

The aim of the study was to investigate whether various beta-cell stimulatory drugs, given neonatally, influence the incidence of diabetes in BB rats. Newborn BB rats were treated twice daily for 6 days and diabetes development was observed during the following 200-day study period. Compared to a diabetes incidence of 63.8% in 163 control BB rats which received saline or were...

Changes in the Growth Hormone-IGF-I Axis in Non-obese Diabetic Mice

We investigated the changes in GH-IGF-I axis in non-obese diabetic (NOD)-mice, a model of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Diabetic female NOD mice and their age- and sex-matched controls were sacrificed at 4, 14, 21 and 30 days (30d DM) after the onset of glycosuria. Serum GH levels increased and serum IGF-I levels decreased in the 30d DM group (182 ± 32% and 45 ± 24% of age...

PROLACTIN-Deficiency in Adult Offspring of Diabetic Mothers

Maternal diabetes induces fetal alterations, resulting in lasting consequences for the glucose tolerance of the offspring over several generations. In our experimental rat model, circulating prolactin, oestradiol, progesterone and corticosterone levels, known to influence insulin secretion and action, are determined in plasma of female adult offspring of mildly and severely...

Pentoxifylline Effects on Nerve Conduction Velocity and Blood Flow in Diabetic Rats

Pentoxifylline has several actions that improve blood rheology and tissue perfusion and may therefore potentially be applicable to diabetic neuropathy. The aims of this study were to ascertain whether 2 weeks of treatment with pentoxifylline could correct nerve conduction velocity and blood flow deficits in 6-week streptozotocin-diabetic rats and to examine whether the effects...

Inhibitory Effect of Diabetes on Proliferation of Vascular Smooth Muscle After Balloon Injury in Rat Aorta

The effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on cell proliferation in rat aortic intima-media, as well as on local gene expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) was studied. TGF-β1 mRNA was measured by solution hybridization and TGF-β1 protein by ELISA. Proliferation was measured by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation into DNA two days after balloon injury. All BrdU...

Tissue Culture of Isolated Human Pancreatic Islets Infected With Different Strains of Coxsackievirus B4: Assessment of Virus Replication and Effects on Islet Morphology and Insulin Release

The aim was to study whether different strains of Coxsackievirus B4 (CBV-4) are able to infect human pancreatic islet cells in vitro and cause morphological and functional damages. Isolated islets maintained in tissue culture were infected with five well- characterised strains of CBV-4. Aliquots of the culture medium were analysed with regard to virus replication and insulin...

Correlation Between Pancreatic Islet Uncoupling Protein-2 (UCP2) mRNA Concentration And Insulin Status in Rats

Hypothesizing that UCP2 may influence insulin secretion by modifying the ATP/ADP ratio within pancreatic islets, we have investigated the expression of intraislet UCP2 gene in rats showing insulin oversecretion (non-diabetic Zucker fa/fa obese rats, glucose-infused Wistar rats) or insulin undersecretion (fasting and mildly diabetic rats). We found that in Zucker fa/fa obese rats...

A Thiazolidinedione Improves In Vivo Insulin Action on Skeletal Muscle Glycogen Synthase in Insulin-Resistant Monkeys

Thiazolidinediones (TZD) have been shown to have anti-diabetic effects including the ability to decrease fasting hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, increase insulin-mediated glucose disposal rate (M) and decrease hepatic glucose production, but the mechanisms of action are not well established. To determine whether a TZD (R-102380, Sankyo Company Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) could...

The Relationship Between Cholesterol Absorption and Intestinal Cholesterol Synthesis in the Diabetic Rat Model

The chylomicron remnant particle is thought to be particularly atherogenic and we have previously shown alterations in post-prandial lipoproteins which could contribute to their atherogenicity. Cholesterol metabolism is disturbed in diabetes, yet the effect of diabetes on intestinal cholesterol synthesis and absorption has rarely been investigated. The aim of this study was to...

Streptozotocin and Alloxan-based Selection Improves Toxin Resistance of Insulin-Producing RINm Cells

The aim of our study was to develop a method for selection of subpopulations of insulin producing RINm cells with higher resistance to beta cell toxins. Cells, resistant to streptozotocin (RINmS) and alloxan (RINmA), were obtained by repeated exposure of parental RINm cells to these two toxins, while the defense capacity, was estimated by the MTT colorimetric method, and [H3...

Lack of Expression of Gp-130 Makes Pancreatic Beta Cell Lines Unresponsive to the IL-6 Family of Cytokines

Cytokine receptors from the IL-6 receptor family are comprised of ligand specific α chains and a common signalling chain, gp-130, which is also required for high affinity binding. A cDNA library generated from the β-TC3 SV40 T-antigen transformed insulinoma cell line was screened for members of this receptor family potentially relevant to both beta cell development and...

Prevention of Cyclophosphamide-induced Accelerated Diabetes in the NOD Mouse by Nicotinamide or a Soy Protein-based Infant Formula

Spontaneous diabetes in the NOD mouse can be prevented by nicotinamide or by an infant formula diet in which the protein source is replaced with casein hydrolysate (Pregestimil) or soy protein (Prosobee). NOD mice maintained on the standard diet (chow and water) and given cyclophosphamide (Cy) at day 95 develop accelerated and synchronised diabetes within 14 days. Here, we...

High Insulin Requirements and Poor Metabolic Control do not Modify the Expression, Regulation and PKC Mediated Activation of the p21ras Pathway in PBMC from Type II Diabetic Patients

Aims To asses whether clinically severe insulin resistance and poor metabolic control in patients with type II diabetes are associated with aberrant expression or function of the p21ras pathway.

Streptozocin Diabetes Elevates all Isoforms of TGF-β in the Rat Kidney

Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a major promoter of diabetic nephropathy. While TGF-β1 is the most abundaft renal isoform, types 2 and 3 are present as well and have identical in vitro effects. Whole kidney extracts were studied 2 weeks after induction of streptozocin diabetes and in control rats. Mean glomerular area was 25% greater in the diabetic animals. TGF-β1...

In Vitro Effect of Fenugreek Extracts on Intestinal Sodium-dependent Glucose Uptake and Hepatic Glycogen Phosphorylase A

Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. seed) is a food with traditional medicinal use in diabetes. Beneficial effects have been demonstrated in diabetic animals and both insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects. Effects of a lipid extract A, crude ethanolic extract B, further sub-fractions of B (saponin-free C, saponin D and sapogenin E) and a gum fibre...

Insulin and Glucagon Impairments in Relation with Islet Cells Morphological Modifications Following Long Term Pancreatic Duct Ligation in the Rabbit – A Model of Non-insulin-dependent Diabete

Plasma levels of glucose, insulin and glucagon were measured at various time intervals after pancreatic duct ligation (PDL) in rabbits. Two hyperglycemic periods were observed: one between 15–90 days (peak at 30 days of 15.1 ± 1.2mmol/l, p < 0.01), and the other at 450 days (11.2 ± 0.5 mmol/l, p < 0.02). The first hyperglycemic episode was significantly correlated with both...