Journal of Diabetes Research

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/

List of Papers (Total 2,845)

Insulin and Glucagon Impairments in Relation with Islet Cells Morphological Modifications Following Long Term Pancreatic Duct Ligation in the Rabbit – A Model of Non-insulin-dependent Diabete

Plasma levels of glucose, insulin and glucagon were measured at various time intervals after pancreatic duct ligation (PDL) in rabbits. Two hyperglycemic periods were observed: one between 15–90 days (peak at 30 days of 15.1 ± 1.2mmol/l, p < 0.01), and the other at 450 days (11.2 ± 0.5 mmol/l, p < 0.02). The first hyperglycemic episode was significantly correlated with both...

Leptin in Children with Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes: Effect of Insulin Therapy

Leptin, the gene product of adipose tissue that signals caloric plentitude via central nervous system receptors, may also have diverse peripheral metabolic actions. Of paramount interest has been the potential interaction(s) between leptin and insulin. Insofar as insulin alters leptin secretion/action (or vice versa), dysregulation of this system could contribute to disease...

Proinsulin C-peptide - A Consensus Statement

In recent years the physiological role of the proinsulin C-peptide has received increasing attention, focusing on the potential therapeutic value of C-peptide replacement in preventing and ameliorating type 1 diabetic complications. In order to consolidate these new data and to identify the immediate directions of C-peptide research and its clinical usefulness, an International...

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The Diabetic Nephropathy and the Development of Hypertension in Rats

The present study was designed to examine the development of hypertension in diabetic rats treated with streptozotocin (STZ, 1mg/g bw). The rats were studied at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 weeks. From the third week the rats were divided in diabetic rats according their glycemias and controls, along 15 weeks. After the third week a group, of rats showed increased urinary protein excretion...

Leptin and Its Relation to Obesity and Insulin in the SHR/N-corpulent Rat, A Model of Type II Diabetes Mellitus

The spontaneously hypertensive/NIH-corpulent (SHR/N-cp) rat is a genetic animal model that exhibits obesity, metabolic features of hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia, which are characteristic of type II diabetes and mild hypertension. To determine the role of leptin, the protein product of the ob gene, in the development of obesity and diabetes in this model, we...

Role of Protein Kinase C, PI3-kinase and Tyrosine Kinase in Activation of MAP Kinase by Glucose and Agonists of G-protein Coupled Receptors in INS-1 Cells

MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinase (also called Erk 1/2) plays a crucial role in cell proliferation and differentiation. Its impact on secretory events is less well established. The interplay of protein kinase C (PKC), PI3-kinase nd cellular tyrosine kinase with MAP kinase activity using inhibitors and compounds such as glucose, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and...

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Markers for Risk of Type 1 Diabetes in Relatives of Alsacian Patients With Type 1 Diabetes

Background: The cytotoxic T lymphocyteassociated antigen 4 gene (CTLA-4) encode the T cell receptor involved in the control of T cell proliferation and mediates T cell apoptosis. The receptor protein is a specific T lymphocyte surface antigen that is detected on cells only after antigen presentation. Thus, CTLA-4 is directly involved in both immune and autoimmune responses and...

Effect of Aldose Reductase Inhibition on Interleukin-1β-Induced Nitric Oxide (NO) Synthesis in Vascular Tissue

Glucose metabolism via sorbitol pathway has been implicated as a possible contributor to the diabetes-related vascular changes. Nitric oxide plays a major regulatory role in the vascular dilatatory and constricted response. Also it has been observed that diabetes causes vascular changes leading to a decrease in nitric oxide production. Additionally the accumulation of sorbitol is...

The Non-Immune RIP-kb Mouse is a Useful Host for Islet Transplantation, as the Diabetes is Spontaneous, Mild and Predictable

Chemically-induced diabetic mice and spontaneously diabetic NOD mice have been valuable as recipients for experimental islet transplantation. However, their maintenance often requires parenteral insulin. Diabetogenic chemicals can be cytotoxic to the host’s immune system and to other organs some of which are often used as the transplant site. Procurement of diabetic cohorts in...

D-Chiro-Inositol – Its Functional Role in Insulin Action and its Deficit in Insulin Resistance

In this review we discuss the biological significance of D-chiro-inositol, originally discovered as a component of a putative mediator of intracellular insulin action, where as a putative mediator, it accelerates the dephosphorylation of glycogen synthase and pyruvate dehydrogenase, rate limiting enzymes of non-oxidative and oxidative glucose disposal.

Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes Decreases Mammary Gland Lipoprotein Lipase Activity and Messenger Ribonucleic Acid in Pregnant and Nonpregnant Rats

Diabetes mellitus is associated with a reduction of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in adipose tissue and development of hypertriglyceridemia. To determine how a condition of severe insulin deficiency affects mammary gland LPL activity and mRNA expression during late pregnancy, streptozotocin (STZ) treated (40 mg/kg) and non-treated (control) virgin and 20 day pregnant rats...

Growth Factor-Dependent Proliferation of the Pancreatic β-cell Line βTC-tet: An Assay for β-cell Mitogenic Factors

The ability to expand normal pancreatic islet β cells in culture would significantly advance the prospects of cell therapy for diabetes. A number of growth factors can stimulate limited islet cell replication, however other factors may exist which are more effective β-cell-specific mitogens. The search for novel β-cell growth factors has been hampered by the lack of a β-cell...

Pancreatic β-Cell Death, Regeneration and Insulin Secretion: Roles of Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase and Cyclic ADP-Ribose

In the early 1980s, we proposed a unifying model for β-cell damage (The OKAMOTO model), in which poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase/ polymerase (PARP) activation plays an essential role in the consumption of NAD

Renal AT1 Receptor Protein Expression During the Early Stage of Diabetes Mellitus

Experiments were performed to evaluate the hypothesis that the early stage of Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) increases renal angiotensin II (AngII) concentration and angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor protein levels. Nineteen or twenty days after vehicle (Sham rats) or streptozotocin (STZ rats) treatment, plasma [AngII] was higher in STZ rats (152±23 fmol/ml) than in Sham rats (101...

The Independence of Signaling Pathways Mediating Increased Expression of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 1 in HepG2 Cells Exposed to Free Fatty Acids or Triglycerides

We have shown that both free fatty acids (FFA) and triglycerides (TG) increase expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) in vivo and in vitro. To determine signaling mechanisms responsible, HepG2 cells were exposed to FFA, emulsified TG, or the combination. The combination of FFA and TG increased PAI-1 to a greater extent than either agent alone (fold induction...

Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Inhibition of Vasomotor Activity: Evaluation of Single and Combined Treatments With Vitamin A and Insulin in Streptozotocin-Diabetic Rats

A positive correlation has been established between increased oxidative stress and cardiovascular diseases in diabetes mellitus. We evaluated the effects of single or combined treatments with vitamin A (retinol acetate, 30 mg/kg/day, for 12-weeks) and insulin (8-10 IU/rat/day for the final 6-week) on vasomotor activity, oxidative stress and retinol metabolism in 12-week...

Potentiation of Mitogenic Activity of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor by Physiological Concentrations of Insulin via the MAP Kinase Cascade in Rat A10 Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

Hyperinsulinemia has been shown to be associated with diabetic angiopathy. Migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) are the processes required for the development of atherosclerosis. In this study, we attempted to determine whether insulin affects mitogenic signaling induced by plateletderived growth factor (PDGF) in a rat VSMC cell line (A10 cells...

Effects of Aminoguanidine on Lipid and Protein Oxidation in Diabetic Rat Kidneys

Nonenzymatic glycation of tissue and plasma proteins may stimulate the production of oxidant and carbonyl stress in diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aminoguanidine (AG) on lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and nitric oxide (NO) release in diabetic rat kidneys. After induction of diabetes with streptozotocin, female Wistar rats were divided into 2...

Fasting Decreases the Content of D-Chiroinositol in Human Skeletal Muscle

Two classes of inositol phosphoglycans have been implicated as second messengers of insulin, one that activates pyruvate dehydrogenase and contains D-chiroinositol, and one that inhibits cyclic AMP–dependent protein kinase and contains myoinositol. We examined the effects of a 3-day fast on muscle contents of inositols in healthy humans. An oral glucose tolerance test was...