The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

http://www.ajtmh.org

List of Papers (Total 5,447)

A Global Genomic Characterization of Nairoviruses Identifies Nine Discrete Genogroups with Distinctive Structural Characteristics and Host-Vector Associations

Nairoviruses are primarily tick-borne bunyaviruses, some of which are known to cause mild-to-severe febrile illness in humans or livestock. We describe the genome sequences of 11 poorly characterized nairoviruses that have ecological associations with either birds (Farallon, Punta Salinas, Sapphire II, Zirqa, Avalon, Clo Mor, Taggert, and Abu Hammad viruses), rodents (Qalyub and...

Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Inkoo Virus in Northern Sweden

The mosquito-borne Inkoo virus (INKV) is a member of the California serogroup in the family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus. These viruses are associated with fever and encephalitis, although INKV infections are not usually reported and the incidence is largely unknown. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of anti-INKV antibodies and associated risk factors in...

Persistent Symptoms of Dengue: Estimates of the Incremental Disease and Economic Burden in Mexico

Dengue is mostly considered an acute illness with three phases: febrile, critical with possible hemorrhagic manifestations, and recovery. But some patients present persistent symptoms, including fatigue and depression, as acknowledged by the World Health Organization. If persistent symptoms affect a non-negligible share of patients, the burden of dengue will be underestimated. On...

The Burden of Dengue and the Financial Cost to Colombia, 2010–2012

Data on the burden of dengue and its economic costs can help guide health policy decisions. However, little reliable information is available for Colombia. We therefore calculated the burden of the disease, expressed in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), for two scenarios: endemic years (average number of cases in non-epidemic years 2011 and 2012) and an epidemic year (2010...

Ascaris lumbricoides Infection Following School-Based Deworming in Western Kenya: Assessing the Role of Pupils' School and Home Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Exposures

Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) technologies and behaviors can prevent infection by soil-transmitted helminth species independently, but may also interact in complex ways. However, these interactions are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to characterize how school and home WaSH exposures were associated with Ascaris lumbricoides infection and to identify...

Surveying the Knowledge and Practices of Health Professionals in China, India, Iran, and Mexico on Treating Tuberculosis

Research evidence continues to reveal findings important for health professionals' clinical practices, yet it is not consistently disseminated to those who can use it. The resulting deficits in knowledge and service provision may be especially pronounced in low- and middle-income countries that have greater resource constraints. Tuberculosis treatment is an important area for...

First Isolates of Leptospira spp., from Rodents Captured in Angola

Rodents play an important role in the transmission of pathogenic Leptospira spp. However, in Angola, neither the natural reservoirs of these spirochetes nor leptospirosis diagnosis has been considered. Regarding this gap, we captured rodents in Luanda and Huambo provinces to identify circulating Leptospira spp. Rodent kidney tissue was cultured and DNA amplified and sequenced...

Quantifying Contact with the Environment: Behaviors of Young Children in Accra, Ghana

To better understand the risks of exposure for young children to fecal contamination in their environment, we systematically characterized and quantified behaviors of 154 children, 0–5 years old, in four high-density, low-income neighborhoods in Accra, Ghana. A repertoire of six different activities and five different compartments (categories of locations within the household...

Population Density, Poor Sanitation, and Enteric Infections in Nueva Santa Rosa, Guatemala

Poor sanitation could pose greater risk for enteric pathogen transmission at higher human population densities because of greater potential for pathogens to infect new hosts through environmentally mediated and person-to-person transmission. We hypothesized that incidence and prevalence of diarrhea, enteric protozoans, and soil-transmitted helminth infections would be higher in...

A Randomized Comparison of Chloroquine Versus Dihydroartemisinin–Piperaquine for the Treatment of Plasmodium vivax Infection in Vietnam

A total of 128 Vietnamese patients with symptomatic Plasmodium vivax mono-infections were enrolled in a prospective, open-label, randomized trial to receive either chloroquine or dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine (DHA-PPQ). The proportions of patients with adequate clinical and parasitological responses were 47% in the chloroquine arm (31 of 65 patients) and 66% in the DHA-PPQ arm...

Ecological Niche Modeling for the Prediction of the Geographic Distribution of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Tunisia

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a very complex disease involving multiple factors that limit its emergence and spatial distribution. Prediction of cutaneous leishmaniasis epidemics in Tunisia remains difficult because most of the epidemiological tools used so far are descriptive in nature and mainly focus on a time dimension. The purpose of this work is to predict the potential...

Severe Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient Coinfected with Leishmania braziliensis and Its Endosymbiotic Virus

Leishmania parasites cause a broad range of disease, with cutaneous afflictions being, by far, the most prevalent. Variations in disease severity and symptomatic spectrum are mostly associated to parasite species. One risk factor for the severity and emergence of leishmaniasis is immunosuppression, usually arising by coinfection of the patient with human immunodeficiency virus...

Polyandry Depends on Postmating Time Interval in the Dengue Vector Aedes aegypti

Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of the dengue and chikungunya viruses. After mating, male seminal fluid molecules cause females to become unreceptive to a subsequent mating. This response is often assumed to be immediate and complete, but a growing body of evidence suggests that some females do mate more than once. It is unknown how quickly a female becomes unreceptive to a...

Spectrum of Imported Infectious Diseases: A Comparative Prevalence Study of 16,817 German Travelers and 977 Immigrants from the Tropics and Subtropics

The aim of this study was to assess the spectrum of imported infectious diseases (IDs) among patients consulting the University of Munich, Germany, between 1999 and 2014 after being in the sub-/tropics. The analysis investigated complete data sets of 16,817 diseased German travelers (2,318 business travelers, 4,029 all-inclusive travelers, and 10,470 backpackers) returning from...

The Utility of Blood Culture Fluid for the Molecular Diagnosis of Leptospira: A Prospective Evaluation

Leptospirosis is an important zoonosis worldwide, with infections occurring after exposure to contaminated water. Despite being a global problem, laboratory diagnosis remains difficult with culture results taking up to 3 months, serology being retrospective by nature, and polymerase chain reaction showing limited sensitivity. Leptospira have been shown to survive and multiply in...

An Improved Ward Architecture for Treatment of Patients with Ebola Virus Disease in Liberia

During the recent outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in west Africa, we established an Ebola treatment center (ETC) with improved ward architecture. The ETC was built with movable prefabricated boards according to infectious disease unit standard requirements. The clinical staff ensured their own security while providing patients with effective treatment. Of the 180 admissions...

Effectiveness and Cost of Insecticide-Treated Bed Nets and Indoor Residual Spraying for the Control of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: A Cluster-Randomized Control Trial in Morocco

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) remains an important public health problem in Morocco. A cluster-randomized trial was conducted with the following three study arms: 1) long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) plus standard of care environmental management (SoC-EM), 2) indoor residual spraying (IRS) with α-cypermethrin plus SoC-EM, and 3) SoC-EM alone. Incidence of new CL cases...

Risk Assessment of Malaria Prevalence in Ludian, Yongshan, and Jinggu Counties, Yunnan Province, After 2014 Earthquake Disaster

The objective of this study was to investigate malaria prevalence after the 2014 earthquakes in Ludian, Yongshan, and Jinggu counties, Yunnan Province, China. We collected and analyzed epidemiological data and made a risk assessment of transmission probability. From January 2005 to July 2015, 87 malaria cases were reported in the three counties, most of which (81.6%) occurred...

Safety, Immunogenicity, and Protective Efficacy of Intradermal Immunization with Aseptic, Purified, Cryopreserved Plasmodium falciparum Sporozoites in Volunteers Under Chloroquine Prophylaxis: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Immunization of volunteers under chloroquine prophylaxis by bites of Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite (PfSPZ)–infected mosquitoes induces > 90% protection against controlled human malaria infection (CHMI). We studied intradermal immunization with cryopreserved, infectious PfSPZ in volunteers taking chloroquine (PfSPZ chemoprophylaxis vaccine [CVac]). Vaccine groups 1 and 3...

Independent Evaluation of the Rapid Scale-Up Program to Reduce Under-Five Mortality in Burkina Faso

We conducted a prospective evaluation of the “Rapid Scale-Up” (RSU) program in Burkina Faso, focusing on the integrated community case management (iCCM) component of the program. We used a quasi-experimental design in which nine RSU districts were compared with seven districts without the program. The evaluation included documentation of program implementation, assessments of...

Clinical and Environmental Surveillance for Vibrio cholerae in Resource Constrained Areas: Application During a 1-Year Surveillance in the Far North Region of Cameroon

Biological confirmation of the presence of Vibrio cholerae in clinical and environmental samples is often constrained due to resource- and labor-intensive gold standard methods. To develop low-cost, simple, and sustainable surveillance techniques, we modified previously published specimen sampling and culture techniques and applied the use of enriched dipstick testing in...