The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

http://www.ajtmh.org

List of Papers (Total 5,447)

Seroepidemiological Study of Interepidemic Rift Valley Fever Virus Infection Among Persons with Intense Ruminant Exposure in Madagascar and Kenya

In this cross-sectional seroepidemiological study we sought to examine the evidence for circulation of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) among herders in Madagascar and Kenya. From July 2010 to June 2012, we enrolled 459 herders and 98 controls (without ruminant exposures) and studied their sera (immunoglobulin G [IgG] and IgM through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] and...

Population-Based Multicentric Survey of Hepatitis B Infection and Risk Factors in the North, South, and Southeast Regions of Brazil, 10–20 Years After the Beginning of Vaccination

A population-based hepatitis survey was carried out to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and its predictive factors for the state capitals from the north, south, and southeast regions of Brazil. A multistage cluster sampling was used to select, successively, census tracts, blocks, households, and residents in the age group 10–69 years in each state...

Dengue Knowledge and Preventive Practices in Iquitos, Peru

As part of a cluster-randomized trial to evaluate insecticide-treated curtains for dengue prevention in Iquitos, Peru, we surveyed 1,333 study participants to examine knowledge and reported practices associated with dengue and its prevention. Entomological data from 1,133 of these households were linked to the survey. Most participants knew that dengue was transmitted by mosquito...

Optimizing Intradermal Administration of Cryopreserved Plasmodium falciparum Sporozoites in Controlled Human Malaria Infection

Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) is a powerful tool to evaluate malaria vaccine and prophylactic drug efficacy. Until recently CHMI was only carried out by the bite of infected mosquitoes. A parenteral method of CHMI would standardize Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite (PfSPZ) administration, eliminate the need for expensive challenge facility infrastructure, and allow for...

Predictive Malaria Risk and Uncertainty Mapping in Nchelenge District, Zambia: Evidence of Widespread, Persistent Risk and Implications for Targeted Interventions

Malaria risk maps may be used to guide policy decisions on whether vector control interventions should be targeted and, if so, where. Active surveillance for malaria was conducted through household surveys in Nchelenge District, Zambia from April 2012 through December 2014. Households were enumerated based on satellite imagery and randomly selected for study enrollment. At each...

Modeling Combinations of Pre-erythrocytic Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Vaccines

Despite substantial progress in the control of Plasmodium falciparum infection due to the widespread deployment of insecticide-treated bed nets and artemisinin combination therapies, malaria remains a prolific killer, with over half a million deaths estimated to have occurred in 2013 alone. Recent evidence of the development of resistance to treatments in both parasites and their...

Global Health Opportunities in Obstetrics and Gynecology Training: Examining Engagement Through an Ethical Lens

This study aims to describe global health training (GHT) programs through the ethical lens suggested by the Working Group on Ethics Guidelines for Global Health Training (WEIGHT). A total of 35 GHT programs were identified, and general information was obtained online. Semi-structured telephone interviews of key members of 19 programs were then conducted and transcribed. The...

Diagnostic Accuracy Assessment of Immunochromatographic Tests for the Rapid Detection of Antibodies Against Orientia tsutsugamushi Using Paired Acute and Convalescent Specimens

We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of two immunochromatographic tests (ICTs), the Access Bio CareStart Scrub Typhus test (Somerset, NJ) (IgM), and the SD BIOLINE Tsutsugamushi test (Kyonggi-do, Republic of Korea) (IgG, IgM, or IgA) compared with indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and real-time PCR results as reference tests using 86 paired acute and convalescent specimens...

Emergence of Melioidosis in Indonesia

Melioidosis is known to be highly endemic in parts of southeast Asia and northern Australia; however, cases are rarely reported in Indonesia. Here we report three cases of melioidosis in Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia occurring between 2013 and 2014. Two patients died and the other was lost to follow-up. Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates from all three cases were identified...

Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Associated with Brucellosis in Livestock Owners in Jordan

We evaluated livestock owners' knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding brucellosis in Jordan. A questionnaire was administered and biological samples were examined to verify the serological status of animals. Seroprevalence estimates indicated that 18.1% (95% CI: 11–25.3) of cattle herds and 34.3% (95% CI: 28.4–40.4) of small ruminant flocks were seropositive. The results...

Incidence of Pneumococcal Pneumonia Among Adults in Rural Thailand, 2006–2011: Implications for Pneumococcal Vaccine Considerations

The incidence of pneumococcal pneumonia among adults is a key driver for the cost-effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine used among children. We sought to obtain more accurate incidence estimates among adults by including results of pneumococcal urine antigen testing (UAT) from population-based pneumonia surveillance in two Thai provinces. Active surveillance from 2006...

A Review of Melioidosis Cases in the Americas

Melioidosis is a bacterial infection caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, a gram-negative saprophytic bacillus. Cases occur sporadically in the Americas with an increasing number of cases observed among people with no travel history to endemic countries. To better understand the incidence of the disease in the Americas, we reviewed the literature, including unpublished cases...

Considerations for Comprehensive Analyses of Sporozoite-Based Controlled Human Malaria Infection Studies

There has been renewed interest in the use of sporozoite-based approaches for controlled human malaria infections (CHMIs), and several sets of human challenge studies have recently completed. A study undertaken in Tanzania and published in 2014 found dose dependence between 10,000 and 25,000 sporozoite doses, as well as divergent times-to-parasitemia relative to earlier studies...

Immunocompromised Travelers: Demographic Characteristics, Travel Destinations, and Pretravel Health Care from the U.S. Global TravEpiNet Consortium

An increasing number of immunocompromised individuals are pursuing international travel, and a better understanding of their international travel patterns and pretravel health care is needed. We evaluated the clinical features, itineraries, and pretravel health care of 486 immunocompromised international travelers seen at Global TravEpiNet sites from January 2009 to June 2012. We...

The Effect of Mass Azithromycin Distribution on Childhood Mortality: Beliefs and Estimates of Efficacy

A cluster-randomized trial demonstrated that mass oral azithromycin distribution reduced childhood mortality 49.6% (Trachoma Amelioration in Northern Amhara [TANA]). The relative risk of childhood mortality was then estimated using two approaches: an expert survey and a Bayesian analysis. The survey asked public health experts to estimate the true effect of mass azithromycin...

Dengue Virus Infection Triggering Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura in Pregnancy

We report a case of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) that immediately followed symptomatic dengue virus infection in a pregnant lady. The patient developed dengue fever at 16 weeks of gestation, resulting in spontaneous abortion. Subsequently, fever reappeared with persistent thrombocytopenia and jaundice. Investigations revealed microangiopathic hemolysis; there was no...

Comparison of Methods for Xenomonitoring in Vectors of Lymphatic Filariasis in Northeastern Tanzania

Monitoring Wuchereria bancrofti infection in mosquitoes (xenomonitoring) can play an important role in determining when lymphatic filariasis has been eliminated, or in focusing control efforts. As mosquito infection rates can be low, a method for collecting large numbers of mosquitoes is necessary. Gravid traps collected large numbers of Culex quinquefasciatus in Tanzania, and a...

Rapid Tests and the Diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Coinfection

After the emergence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), the number of visceral leishmaniasis (VL)–HIV/AIDS coinfections has increased worldwide. Herein, we assessed the usefulness of an rK39-based immunochromatographic test (rK39 ICT) (DiaMed-IT LEISH®; DiaMed AG, Cressier-sur-Morat, Switzerland) and a latex agglutination test...

Serum Anti-Cryptosporidial gp15 Antibodies in Mothers and Children Less than 2 Years of Age in India

Little is known about the type and longevity of the humoral response to cryptosporidial infections in developing countries. We evaluated serum antibody response to Cryptosporidium gp15 in 150 sets of maternal, preweaning and postinfection/end-of-follow-up sera from children followed up to 2 years of age to determine the influence of maternal and preweaning serological status on...

Gastrointestinal Infections in Deployed Forces in the Middle East Theater: An Historical 60 Year Perspective

Infectious diarrhea has been among the most common maladies of military deployments throughout time. The U.S. military experienced a significant burden from this disease in the middle eastern and north African campaigns of World War II (WWII). This article compares patterns of disease experienced in WWII with the recent military deployments to the same region for Operation Iraqi...

Microbiological Contamination of Drinking Water Associated with Subsequent Child Diarrhea

We used a prospective, longitudinal cohort enrolled as part of a program evaluation to assess the relationship between drinking water microbiological quality and child diarrhea. We included 50 villages across rural Bangladesh. Within each village field-workers enrolled a systematic random sample of 10 households with a child under the age of 3 years. Community monitors visited...