Respiratory Research

http://respiratory-research.com/

List of Papers (Total 2,049)

Impact of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex lineages as a determinant of disease phenotypes from an immigrant rich moderate tuberculosis burden country

Growing evidences suggested that the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) lineages can determine the clinical outcome of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. However, limited data only available revealing such association of bacterial genotypes and clinical phenotypes from immigrant rich countries. A multicenter study has been carried out on a collection of 2092 (1003...

Clinical variables predicting the risk of a hospital stay for longer than 7 days in patients with severe acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a prospective study

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients may experience an acute exacerbation (AECOPD) that requires hospitalisation. The length of hospital stay (LHS) has a great economic impact on the health-care system. Knowing the predictors of prolonged LHS could help to identify possible interventions. We performed a prospective study to identify the clinical predictors of...

Right ventricular size and function under riociguat in pulmonary arterial hypertension and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (the RIVER study)

Riociguat is a soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator approved for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTPEH). The objective of this study was to evaluate right heart size and function assessed by echocardiography during long term treatment with riociguat. Patients who started riociguat treatment (1.0–2.5 mg tid) within the...

Predictors of clinical response to extrafine and non-extrafine particle inhaled corticosteroids in smokers and ex-smokers with asthma

We performed a post-hoc analysis of the OLiVIA-study investigating whether current and ex-smoking asthmatics with small airways dysfunction (SAD) show a better response in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to small particle adenosine after treatment with extrafine compared to non-extrafine particle inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), and to investigate which clinical parameters predict...

Centrilobular emphysema and coronary artery calcification: mediation analysis in the SPIROMICS cohort

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with a two-to-five fold increase in the risk of coronary artery disease independent of shared risk factors. This association is hypothesized to be mediated by systemic inflammation but this link has not been established. We included 300 participants enrolled in the SPIROMICS cohort, 75 each of lifetime non-smokers...

Pulmonary aspiration in preschool children with cystic fibrosis

Pulmonary aspiration of gastric refluxate (PAGR) has been demonstrated in association with pulmonary inflammation in school aged children with Cystic Fibrosis (CF). We sought to determine if similar findings were present in preschool children. Pepsin was measured in Broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid collected from clinically stable preschool children with CF and controls...

LncRNA H19 promotes the proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells through AT 1 R via sponging let-7b in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is related to inflammation, and the lncRNA H19 is associated with inflammation. However, whether PDGF-BB-H19-let-7b-AT1R axis contributes to the pathogenesis of PAH has not been thoroughly elucidated to date. This study investigated the role of H19 in PAH and its related mechanism. In the present study, SD rats, C57/BL6 mice and H19−/− mice...

Effects of smoking on the lower respiratory tract microbiome in mice

Recent studies break with traditional opinion that the lower respiratory tract is sterile, and increasingly focus on the lung microbiome and disease. Smoking, as an important etiology of inflammatory lung disease, was considered as a factor influencing lung microbiome variations in our study, and we aimed to study the effect of smoking on inflammation and microbial diversity and...

Spirometric changes during exacerbations of COPD: a post hoc analysis of the WISDOM trial

Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are associated with loss of lung function and poor outcomes for patients. However, there are limited data on the time course of changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) preceding the first reported symptom and after the start of an exacerbation. WISDOM was a multinational, randomized, double-blind, active...

GLI 2012 equations define few spirometric anomalies in the general population: the PneumoLaus study

Reduced lung function predicts increased mortality, but its prevalence may vary depending on definition considered, use of bronchodilation and applied reference values. We aimed to assess lung function abnormalities in Lausanne, Switzerland, and their association with clinical history. In a general population sample, spirometry was performed and bronchodilation applied if the...

The impact of outdoor air pollutants on outpatient visits for respiratory diseases during 2012–2016 in Jinan, China

Few studies have investigated the associations between outdoor air pollution and outpatient visits for respiratory diseases (RDs) in general population. We collected daily outpatient data of primary RDs from five hospitals in Jinan during January 2012 and December 2016, as well as daily measurements of air pollutants from the Jinan Environmental Monitoring Center and daily...

Cytotoxic lymphocytes in COPD airways: increased NK cells associated with disease, iNKT and NKT-like cells with current smoking

Cytotoxic lymphocytes are increased in the airways of COPD patients. Whether this increase is driven primarily by the disease or by smoking is not clear, nor whether it correlates with the rate of decline in lung function. Bronchoscopy with BAL was performed in 52 subjects recruited from the longitudinal OLIN COPD study according to pre-determined criteria; 12 with COPD and a...

Microbial dysbiosis and mortality during mechanical ventilation: a prospective observational study

Host-associated microbial communities have important roles in tissue homeostasis and overall health. Severe perturbations can occur within these microbial communities during critical illness due to underlying diseases and clinical interventions, potentially influencing patient outcomes. We sought to profile the microbial composition of critically ill mechanically ventilated...

Lipoxin A4 receptor agonist BML-111 induces autophagy in alveolar macrophages and protects from acute lung injury by activating MAPK signaling

Acute lung injury (ALI) is a life-threatening lung disease where alveolar macrophages (AMs) play a central role both in the early phase to initiate inflammatory responses and in the late phase to promote tissue repair. In this study, we examined whether BML-111, a lipoxin A4 receptor agonist, could alter the phenotypes of AM and thus present prophylactic benefits for ALI. In...

Dihydrotestosterone is a predictor for mortality in males with community-acquired pneumonia: results of a 6-year follow-up study

Adrenal hormone metabolite levels are altered in acute illnesses such as community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Our aim was to investigate associations of sex and mineralocorticoid hormone metabolites with short- and long-term mortality and severity of CAP in male and female patients. We prospectively followed 285 patients (60.4% male, mean age 71 years) with CAP from a previous...

Cellular and acellular ex vivo lung perfusion preserve functional lung ultrastructure in a large animal model: a stereological study

Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) is used by an increasing number of transplant centres. It is still controversial whether an acellular or cellular (erythrocyte enriched) perfusate is preferable. The aim of this paper was to evaluate whether acellular (aEVLP) or cellular EVLP (cEVLP) preserves functional lung ultrastructure better and to generate a hypothesis regarding possible...

SOX30 specially prevents Wnt-signaling to suppress metastasis and improve prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma patients

Different histological subtypes of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) show different molecular characteristics and responses to therapeutic strategy. Identification of specific gene, clarification of its special roles and molecular mechanisms are crucial for developing new therapeutic approach for particular subtype patients. Surgical specimens of 540 NSCLC patients were...

Women with COPD by biomass show different serum profile of adipokines, incretins, and peptide hormones than smokers

The main causes of COPD are tobacco smoking (COPD-TS) and biomass smoke exposure (COPD-BS). COPD-TS is known to induce changes in adipokines, incretins, and peptide hormones, frequent biomarkers of inflammation; however, it is unknown if similar changes occur in COPD-BS. Clinical and physiological characteristics, and serum concentration of C-peptide, ghrelin, GIP, GLP-1...

Pneumonia in patients with cirrhosis: risk factors associated with mortality and predictive value of prognostic models

Cirrhosis always goes with profound immunity compromise, and makes those patients easily be the target of pneumonia. Cirrhotic patients with pneumonia have a dramatically increased mortality. To recognize the risk factors of mortality and to optimize stratification are critical for improving survival rate. Two hundred and three cirrhotic patients with pneumonia at a tertiary care...

Selective activation and proliferation of a quiescent stem cell population in the neuroepithelial body microenvironment

The microenvironment (ME) of neuroepithelial bodies (NEBs) harbors densely innervated groups of pulmonary neuroendocrine cells that are covered by Clara-like cells (CLCs) and is believed to be important during development and for adult airway epithelial repair after severe injury. Yet, little is known about its potential stem cell characteristics in healthy postnatal lungs...

Efficacy and effectiveness of Ceftaroline Fosamil in patients with pneumonia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Pneumonia is a relevant clinical and public health issue worldwide frequently associated with infections caused by Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) pathogens. Ceftaroline fosamil is a promising new antibiotics with broad-spectrum bacterial activity. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to assess the efficacy and the effectiveness of ceftaroline fosamil in community...

Culture of human alveolar epithelial type II cells by sprouting

Type II alveolar epithelial cells (AT2) play a pivotal role in maintaining the integrity and function of the alveoli. Only recently, the role of impaired epithelial repair mechanisms after injury in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis has been demonstrated, and has shifted the AT2 cell in the focus of interest. Therefore, using primary human AT2 cells instead of...

Efficacy and safety of nintedanib in advanced idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

Phase 3 trials have shown that nintedanib reduces the decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) in patients with mild-to-moderate idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) with acceptable safety profiles; however, its effects on advanced IPF are unclear. We investigated the efficacy and safety of nintedanib in patients with advanced IPF. Prospective data were obtained from 108 IPF...

IL-32γ attenuates airway fibrosis by modulating the integrin-FAK signaling pathway in fibroblasts

Fibrosis in severe asthma often leads to irreversible organ dysfunction. However, the mechanism that regulates fibrosis remains poorly understood. Interleukin (IL)-32 plays a role in several chronic inflammatory diseases, including severe asthma. In this study, we investigated whether IL-32 is involved in fibrosis progression in the lungs. Murine models of chronic airway...