Neural Plasticity

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/

List of Papers (Total 2,252)

Transplantation of Fetal CNS Tissue Into the Peripheral Nervous System: A Model to Study Aberrant Changes in the Neuronal Cytoskeleton

Defined regions (septum, substantia nigra) of the embryonic central nervous system (CNS) were transplanted into the sciatic nerves of young adult rats. Immunocytochemical techniques were used to examine the expression of neurotransmitter related enzymes and neuronal cytoskeletal proteins in the grafts.

Behavioral Effects of Adrenal Medullary Transplants in Non-Human Primates

Small multiple “ribbon“ autografts of intact adrenal medulla stereotaxically implanted at several sites throughout the striatum in longtailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) have been shown to contain large amounts of viable glandular tissue as long as eight weeks after transplantation /15/. Variations of technique clearly influence viability/12/. All monkeys were maintained in...

Language in Preterm Born Children: Atypical Development and Effects of Early Interventions on Neuroplasticity

Predicting language performances after preterm birth is challenging. It is described in the literature that early exposure to the extrauterine environment can be either detrimental or advantageous for neurodevelopment. However, the emphasis mostly lies on the fact that preterm birth may have an unfavorable effect on numerous aspects of development such as cognition, language, and...

Cholinergic Mechanisms of Target Oddball Stimuli Detection: The Late “P300-Like” Event-Related Potential in Rats

Event-related potentials (ERPs) and oscillations (EROs) provide powerful tools for studying the brain’s synaptic function underlying information processing. The P300 component of ERPs indexing attention and working memory shows abnormal amplitude and latency in neurological and psychiatric diseases that are sensitive to pharmacological agents. In the active auditory oddball...

Visual Features in Alzheimer’s Disease: From Basic Mechanisms to Clinical Overview

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia worldwide. It compromises patients’ daily activities owing to progressive cognitive deterioration, which has elevated direct and indirect costs. Although AD has several risk factors, aging is considered the most important. Unfortunately, clinical diagnosis is usually performed at an advanced disease stage when dementia is...

Spatial Integration of Somatosensory Inputs during Sensory-Motor Plasticity Phenomena Is Normal in Focal Hand Dystonia

Background. Surround inhibition is a system that sharpens sensation by creating an inhibitory zone around the central core of activation. In the motor system, this mechanism probably contributes to the selection of voluntary movements, and it seems to be lost in dystonia. Objectives. To explore if sensory information is abnormally processed and integrated in focal hand dystonia...

Impaired Ability to Suppress Excitability of Antagonist Motoneurons at Onset of Dorsiflexion in Adults with Cerebral Palsy

We recently showed that impaired gait function in adults with cerebral palsy (CP) is associated with reduced rate of force development in ankle dorsiflexors. Here, we explore potential mechanisms. We investigated the suppression of antagonist excitability, calculated as the amount of soleus H-reflex depression at the onset of ankle dorsiflexion compared to rest, in 24 adults with...

Electroacupuncture Improves Baroreflex and γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type B Receptor-Mediated Responses in the Nucleus Tractus Solitarii of Hypertensive Rats

Electroacupuncture (EA) has been reported to benefit hypertension, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. We hypothesized that EA attenuates hypertension, in part, through modulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor function in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS). In the present study, the long-term effect of EA on GABA receptor function and expression was...

Developing Retina and PNS Segments for Transplantation Into the Adult Host Eye: Reconstruction of the Mammalian Visual System. 2. Results

The previous companion paper detailed, a technique which allowed embryonic retinal ganglion cell axons to grow from the anterior eye chamber across a PNS bridge, and enter the adult host forebrain. Embryonic eyes of E11, E14, E18 and E21 animals were sutured to a PNS bridge, the embryonic eye implanted into an adult host eye, and the distal end of the bridge implanted into the...

Pineal Gland Transplants into the Cerebral Hemisphere of Newborn Rats: A Study of the Blood Brain Barrier and Innervation

Pineal glands from neonatal (0-1 day) Long-Evans black-hooded rats were transplanted into the cerebral hemispheres of litter mates for periods of 1 to 5.5 months. Grafts exhibited differentiated pinealocytes that were intensely immunoreactive for serotonin. Transplant vasculature was permeable to endogenous IgG, comprised fenestrated endothelia with wide pericapillary spaces...

Transplantation of Fetal CNS Tissue Into the Peripheral Nervous System: A Model to Study Aberrant Changes in the Neuronal Cytoskeleton

Defined regions (septum, substantia nigra) of the embryonic central nervous system (CNS) were transplanted into the sciatic nerves of young adult rats. Immunocytochemical techniques were used to examine the expression of neurotransmitter related enzymes and neuronal cytoskeletal proteins in the grafts.

Behavioral Effects of Adrenal Medullary Transplants in Non-Human Primates

Small multiple “ribbon“ autografts of intact adrenal medulla stereotaxically implanted at several sites throughout the striatum in longtailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) have been shown to contain large amounts of viable glandular tissue as long as eight weeks after transplantation /15/. Variations of technique clearly influence viability/12/. All monkeys were maintained in...

Nerve Growth Factor with Insular Cortical Grafts Induces Recovery of Learning and Reestablishes Graft Choline Acetyltransferase Activity

Rats showing disrupted taste aversion due to insular cortex (IC)-lesions received either IC-grafts with NGF, grafts without NGF, or NGF alone. An additional group served as lesioned controls. Only those animals that received IC-grafts with NGF recovered the ability to learn the conditioned taste aversion task, at 15 days post-graft. Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity in...

Effects of Nerve Growth Factor Infusion on Behavioral Recovery and Graft Survival Following Intraventricular Adrenal Medulla Grafts in the Unilateral 6-Hydroxydopamine Lesioned Rat

NGF was infused into the lateral ventricle of rats with unilateral 6-OHDA lesions of the substantia nigra along with adrenal medulla or control grafts. Treatment effectiveness, as measured by amphetamine-induced turning behavior, indicated that there were no significant differences between treated and control groups in spite of the survival of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH...

Isolation of Enteric Ganglia from the Myenteric Plexus of Adult Rats

Enteric neurons and glia cells were isolated from adult Sprague Dawley rats. A procedure is described using a combination of microdissection and mechanical dissociation after enzyme treatment which yields large numbers of cell clusters suitable for tissue culture and grafting into the injured spinal cord. Differentiated enteric ganglia remained viable for at least 5 days in vitro...

Changes in L1 Antigen Expression in the Rat Striatum After Substantia Nigra Lesions

L1 antigen promotes neurite outgrowth from dopaminergic neurons in tissue culture. In the present study, we examined the effects of dopaminergic deafferentation of the striatum on L1 expression. In the medial-periventricular part of the striatum, both complete and partial substantia nigra (SN) lesions decreased L1 expression. Complete lesions increased L1 expression in the dorso...

Functional and Anatomic Correlates of Two Frequently Observed Temporal Lobe Seizure-Onset Patterns

Intracranial depth electrode EEG records of 478 seizures, recorded in 68 patients undergoing diagnostic monitoring with depth electrodes, were evaluated to investigate the correlates of electrographic onset patterns in patients with temporal lobe seizures. The seizure onsets in 78% of these patients were identified as either hypersynchronous onsets, beginning with low-frequency...

Parallel Information Processing in Motor Systems: Intracerebral Recordings of Readiness Potential and CNV in Human Subjects

We performed intracerebral recordings of Readiness Potential (RP) and Contingent Negative Variation (CNV) with simple repetitive distal limb movement in candidates for epilepsy surgery. In 26 patients (in Paris), depth electrodes were located in various cortical structures; in eight patients (in Brno), in the basal ganglia and the cortex. RPs were displayed in the conteral...

Age-Related Decrease in the Schaffer Collateral-Evoked EPSP in Awake, Freely, Behaving Rats

Synaptic response size in the CA1 region of the hippocampus in aged rats is reduced for a given stimulus intensity, compared with that elicited in young rats. Consistent with the in vitro findings of reduced Schaffer collateral-evoked CA1 EPSPs in old rats, the population currents evoked to iontophoretically applied AMPA are also smaller relative to the presynaptic fiber...