Molecular Neurodegeneration

https://molecularneurodegeneration.biomedcentral.com

List of Papers (Total 851)

New insights into the role of TREM2 in Alzheimer’s disease

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia. The two histopathological markers of AD are amyloid plaques composed of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, and neurofibrillary tangles of aggregated, abnormally hyperphosphorylated tau protein. The majority of AD cases are late-onset, after the age of 65, where a clear cause is still unknown. However, there are likely different...

Genome-wide RNAseq study of the molecular mechanisms underlying microglia activation in response to pathological tau perturbation in the rTg4510 tau transgenic animal model

Activation of microglia, the resident immune cells of the central nervous system, is a prominent pathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the gene expression changes underlying microglia activation in response to tau pathology remain elusive. Furthermore, it is not clear how murine gene expression changes relate to human gene expression networks. Microglia...

Advances in developing novel therapeutic strategies for Alzheimer’s disease

Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease of aging, affects one in eight older Americans. Nearly all drug treatments tested for AD today have failed to show any efficacy. There is a great need for therapies to prevent and/or slow the progression of AD. The major challenge in AD drug development is lack of clarity about the mechanisms underlying AD...

Disease-modifying effects of metabolic perturbations in ALS/FTLD

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) are two fatal neurodegenerative disorders with considerable clinical, pathological and genetic overlap. Both disorders are characterized by the accumulation of pathological protein aggregates that contain a number of proteins, most notably TAR DNA binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43). Surprisingly, recent...

Blood-brain barrier-associated pericytes internalize and clear aggregated amyloid-β42 by LRP1-dependent apolipoprotein E isoform-specific mechanism

Clearance at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays an important role in removal of Alzheimer’s amyloid-β (Aβ) toxin from brain both in humans and animal models. Apolipoprotein E (apoE), the major genetic risk factor for AD, disrupts Aβ clearance at the BBB. The cellular and molecular mechanisms, however, still remain unclear, particularly whether the BBB-associated brain capillary...

Progranulin reduces insoluble TDP-43 levels, slows down axonal degeneration and prolongs survival in mutant TDP-43 mice

TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is the main disease protein in most patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and about 50% of patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD). TDP-43 pathology is not restricted to patients with missense mutations in TARDBP, the gene encoding TDP-43, but also occurs in ALS/FTD patients without known genetic cause or in patients with...

ABI3 and PLCG2 missense variants as risk factors for neurodegenerative diseases in Caucasians and African Americans

Rare coding variants ABI3_rs616338-T and PLCG2_rs72824905-G were identified as risk or protective factors, respectively, for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We tested the association of these variants with five neurodegenerative diseases in Caucasian case-control cohorts: 2742 AD, 231 progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), 838 Parkinson’s disease (PD), 306 dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB...

The Trem2 R47H Alzheimer’s risk variant impairs splicing and reduces Trem2 mRNA and protein in mice but not in humans

The R47H variant of the Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) significantly increases the risk for late onset Alzheimer’s disease. Mouse models accurately reproducing phenotypes observed in Alzheimer’ disease patients carrying the R47H coding variant are required to understand the TREM2 related dysfunctions responsible for the enhanced risk for late onset...

Alzheimer-associated cerebrospinal fluid fragments of neurogranin are generated by Calpain-1 and prolyl endopeptidase

Neurogranin (Ng) is a small 7.6 kDa postsynaptic protein that has been detected at elevated concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), both as a full-length molecule and as fragments from its C-terminal half. Ng is involved in postsynaptic calcium (Ca) signal transduction and memory formation via binding to calmodulin in a Ca-dependent...

Long-read sequencing across the C9orf72 ‘GGGGCC’ repeat expansion: implications for clinical use and genetic discovery efforts in human disease

Many neurodegenerative diseases are caused by nucleotide repeat expansions, but most expansions, like the C9orf72 ‘GGGGCC’ (G4C2) repeat that causes approximately 5–7% of all amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) cases, are too long to sequence using short-read sequencing technologies. It is unclear whether long-read sequencing technologies can...

PU.1 regulates Alzheimer’s disease-associated genes in primary human microglia

Microglia play critical roles in the brain during homeostasis and pathological conditions. Understanding the molecular events underpinning microglial functions and activation states will further enable us to target these cells for the treatment of neurological disorders. The transcription factor PU.1 is critical in the development of myeloid cells and a major regulator of...

Transcriptional profiling and biomarker identification reveal tissue specific effects of expanded ataxin-3 in a spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 mouse model

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by expansion of the polyglutamine repeat in the ataxin-3 protein. Expression of mutant ataxin-3 is known to result in transcriptional dysregulation, which can contribute to the cellular toxicity and neurodegeneration. Since the exact causative mechanisms underlying this process have not been...

Structural and mechanistic aspects influencing the ADAM10-mediated shedding of the prion protein

Proteolytic processing of the prion protein (PrPC) by endogenous proteases generates bioactive membrane-bound and soluble fragments which may help to explain the pleiotropic roles of this protein in the nervous system and in brain diseases. Shedding of almost full-length PrPC into the extracellular space by the metalloprotease ADAM10 is of peculiar relevance since soluble PrP...

Anti-aggregant tau mutant promotes neurogenesis

The microtubule-associated protein Tau plays a role in neurodegeneration as well as neurogenesis. Previous work has shown that the expression of the pro-aggregant mutant Tau repeat domain causes strong aggregation and pronounced neuronal loss in the hippocampus whereas the anti-aggregant form has no deleterious effects. These two proteins differ mainly in their propensity to form...

NADPH oxidases in Parkinson’s disease: a systematic review

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive movement neurodegenerative disease associated with a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the brain. Oxidative stress, a condition that occurs due to imbalance in oxidant and antioxidant status, is thought to play an important role in dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH...

Advances, challenges and future directions for stem cell therapy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative condition where loss of motor neurons within the brain and spinal cord leads to muscle atrophy, weakness, paralysis and ultimately death within 3–5 years from onset of symptoms. The specific molecular mechanisms underlying the disease pathology are not fully understood and neuroprotective treatment...

A validated antibody panel for the characterization of tau post-translational modifications

Tau is a microtubule-binding protein, which is subject to various post-translational modifications (PTMs) including phosphorylation, methylation, acetylation, glycosylation, nitration, sumoylation and truncation. Aberrant PTMs such as hyperphosphorylation result in tau aggregation and the formation of neurofibrillary tangles, which are a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In...

Anti-aggregant tau mutant promotes neurogenesis

The microtubule-associated protein Tau plays a role in neurodegeneration as well as neurogenesis. Previous work has shown that the expression of the pro-aggregant mutant Tau repeat domain causes strong aggregation and pronounced neuronal loss in the hippocampus whereas the anti-aggregant form has no deleterious effects. These two proteins differ mainly in their propensity to form...

NADPH oxidases in Parkinson’s disease: a systematic review

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive movement neurodegenerative disease associated with a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the brain. Oxidative stress, a condition that occurs due to imbalance in oxidant and antioxidant status, is thought to play an important role in dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH...

Advances, challenges and future directions for stem cell therapy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative condition where loss of motor neurons within the brain and spinal cord leads to muscle atrophy, weakness, paralysis and ultimately death within 3–5 years from onset of symptoms. The specific molecular mechanisms underlying the disease pathology are not fully understood and neuroprotective treatment...