European Respiratory Review

http://err.ersjournals.com

List of Papers (Total 586)

Dismantling the pathophysiology of asthma using imaging

Asthma remains an important disease worldwide, causing high burden to patients and healthcare systems and presenting a need for better management and ultimately prevention and cure. Asthma is a very heterogeneous condition, with many different pathophysiological processes. Better measurement of those pathophysiological processes are needed to better phenotype disease, and to go...

The time-controlled adaptive ventilation protocol: mechanistic approach to reducing ventilator-induced lung injury

Airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) is a ventilator mode that has previously been considered a rescue mode, but has gained acceptance as a primary mode of ventilation. In clinical series and experimental animal models of extrapulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), the early application of APRV was able to prevent the development of ARDS. Recent experimental...

Dismantling airway disease with the use of new pulmonary function indices

We are currently limited in our abilities to diagnose, monitor disease status and manage chronic airway disease like asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Conventional lung function measures often poorly reflect patient symptoms or are insensitive to changes, particularly in the small airways where disease may originate or manifest. Novel pulmonary function...

Obesity hypoventilation syndrome

Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) is defined as a combination of obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg·m−2), daytime hypercapnia (arterial carbon dioxide tension ≥45 mmHg) and sleep disordered breathing, after ruling out other disorders that may cause alveolar hypoventilation. OHS prevalence has been estimated to be ∼0.4% of the adult population. OHS is typically diagnosed during...

Respiratory viral infection: a potential “missing link” in the pathogenesis of COPD

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is currently the third most common cause of global mortality. Acute exacerbations of COPD frequently necessitate hospital admission to enable more intensive therapy, incurring significant healthcare costs. COPD exacerbations are also associated with accelerated lung function decline and increased risk of mortality. Until recently...

Tumoral pulmonary hypertension

Tumoral pulmonary hypertension (PH) comprises a variety of subtypes in patients with a current or previous malignancy. Tumoral PH principally includes the tumour-related pulmonary microvascular conditions pulmonary tumour microembolism and pulmonary tumour thrombotic microangiopathy. These inter-related conditions are frequently found in post mortem specimens but are notoriously...

The European Respiratory Review: continuing the success and targeting new challenges

The European Respiratory Review ( ERR ) is now over 20 years old, and during those years it has become a source of current and relevant information in our discipline. The overall number of visits to the ERR website and the number of downloaded review articles is constantly increasing, not only in Europe but all over the world, with more than 800 000 visits and 2.75 million HTML...

Presentation, diagnosis and clinical course of the spectrum of progressive-fibrosing interstitial lung diseases

Although these conditions are rare, a proportion of patients with interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) may develop a progressive-fibrosing phenotype. Progressive fibrosis is associated with worsening respiratory symptoms, lung function decline, limited response to immunomodulatory therapies, decreased quality of life and, potentially, early death. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis may...

How should we monitor patients with acute respiratory failure treated with noninvasive ventilation?

Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is currently one of the most commonly used support methods in hypoxaemic and hypercapnic acute respiratory failure (ARF). With advancing technology and increasing experience, not only are indications for NIV getting broader, but more severe patients are treated with NIV. Depending on disease type and clinical status, NIV can be applied both in the...

ARDS: challenges in patient care and frontiers in research

This review discusses the clinical challenges associated with ventilatory support and pharmacological interventions in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In addition, it discusses current scientific challenges facing researchers when planning and performing trials of ventilatory support or pharmacological interventions in these patients. Noninvasive...

Impact of the financial crisis on COPD burden: Greece as a case study

Poverty and low socioeconomic status have been associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The current financial crisis has forced millions back into poverty. Greece is one of the countries hit the hardest, and is in the middle of a deep ongoing collapse. There have been early reports stating the apparent effects of the Greek downturn on respiratory health. This...

Inhalation challenge in the differential diagnosis of usual interstitial pneumonia

Specific inhalation challenge is useful for the differential diagnosis of usual interstitial pneumonia http://ow.ly/PX1q9

A rare case of diffuse pulmonary ossification

A case demonstrating the indolent and benign course of pulmonary ossification http://ow.ly/Old3o

Should lung biopsies be performed in patients with severe asthma?

Asthma, and severe asthma, in particular, is increasingly recognised as a heterogeneous disease. Identifying these different phenotypes of asthma and assigning patients to phenotype-specific treatments is one of the current conundrums in respiratory medicine. Any diagnostic procedure in severe asthma (or any disease) should have two aims: 1) better understanding or identifying...

Therapeutic strategies in pneumonia: going beyond antibiotics

Dysregulation of the innate immune system drives lung injury and its systemic sequelae due to breakdown of vascular barrier function, harmful hyperinflammation and microcirculatory failure, which contribute to the unfavourable outcome of patients with severe pneumonia. A variety of promising therapeutic targets have been identified and numerous innovative therapeutic approaches...

Macrophage adaptation in airway inflammatory resolution

Bacterial and viral infections (exacerbations) are particularly problematic in those with underlying respiratory disease, including post-viral infection, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pulmonary fibrosis. Patients experiencing exacerbations tend to be at the more severe end of the disease spectrum and are often difficult to treat. Most of the unmet medical need...

The heterogeneity of lung macrophages in the susceptibility to disease

Alveolar macrophages are specialised resident phagocytes in the alveolus, constituting the first line of immune cellular defence in the lung. As the lung microenvironment is challenged and remodelled by inhaled pathogens and air particles, so is the alveolar macrophage pool altered by signals that maintain and/or replace its composition. The signals that induce the recruitment of...

Informal caregivers of patients with COPD: Home Sweet Home?

The burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on society is increasing. Healthcare systems should support patients with COPD in achieving an optimal quality of life, while limiting the costs of care. As a consequence, a shift from hospital care to home care seems inevitable. Therefore, patients will have to rely to a greater extent on informal caregivers. Patients...

Developments in the management and treatment of pulmonary embolism

Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a serious and costly disease for patients and healthcare systems. Guidelines emphasise the importance of differentiating between patients who are at high risk of mortality (those with shock and/or hypotension), who may be candidates for thrombolytic therapy or surgery, and those with less severe presentations. Recent clinical studies and guidelines have...

National and regional asthma programmes in Europe

This review presents seven national asthma programmes to support the European Asthma Research and Innovation Partnership in developing strategies to reduce asthma mortality and morbidity across Europe. From published data it appears that in order to influence asthma care, national/regional asthma programmes are more effective than conventional treatment guidelines. An asthma...

Environmental exposure to pesticides and respiratory health

Respiratory effects of environmental exposure to pesticides are debated. Here we aimed to review epidemiological studies published up until 2013, using the PubMed database. 20 studies dealing with respiratory health and non-occupational pesticide exposure were identified, 14 carried out on children and six on adults. In four out of nine studies in children with biological...

Influence of N-acetylcysteine on chronic bronchitis or COPD exacerbations: a meta-analysis

In order to clarify the possible role of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in the treatment of patients with chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), we have carried out a meta-analysis testing the available evidence that NAC treatment may be effective in preventing exacerbations of chronic bronchitis or COPD and evaluating whether there is a substantial...