Emerging Microbes & Infections

http://www.nature.com/emi

List of Papers (Total 173)

Saliva as a source of reagent to study human susceptibility to avian influenza H7N9 virus infection

Avian influenza H7N9 viruses are an important public health concern due to their high mortality rate and potentials for future pandemics. We investigated human susceptibility to H7N9 viruses using recombinant H7N9 hemagglutinin (HA) proteins as a probe and found a strong association between H7N9 infections and HA binding among saliva samples from 32 patients and 60 uninfected...

Attenuation of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses in Indonesia following the reassortment and acquisition of genes from low pathogenicity avian influenza A virus progenitors

The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) virus is endemic in Indonesian poultry and has caused sporadic human infection in Indonesia since 2005. Surveillance of H5N1 viruses in live bird markets (LBMs) during 2012 and 2013 was carried out to provide epidemiologic and virologic information regarding viral circulation and the risk of human exposure. Real-time RT-PCR of...

Seroprevalence of TBEV in bank voles from Poland—a long-term approach

Rodents are known to play a significant role as reservoir hosts for TBEV. During three sequential expeditions at 4-year intervals to three ecologically similar study sites in NE Poland, we trapped bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and then tested their blood for the presence of specific antiviral antibodies to TBEV. The strongest effects on seroprevalence were the extrinsic factors...

Optimized HepaRG is a suitable cell source to generate the human liver chimeric mouse model for the chronic hepatitis B virus infection

The human liver chimeric mouse with primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) engraftment has been demonstrated to be a useful animal model to study hepatitis B virus (HBV) pathogenesis and evaluate anti-HBV drugs. However, the disadvantages of using PHHs include the inability for cellular expansion in vitro, limited donor availability, individual differences, and ethical issues...

Bona fide receptor for hepatitis B and D viral infections: Mechanism, research models and molecular drug targets

Hepatitis B infections have become a serious public health issue globally, and the current first-line antiviral treatment for this disease is not a true cure. Recently, sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP), a liver-specific bile acid transporter, was identified as a bona fide receptor for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and its satellite virus, hepatitis delta virus (HDV...

Continuous decline of hepatitis E virus seroprevalence in southern Germany despite increasing notifications, 2003–2015

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is viewed as an emerging pathogen. Many European countries, including Germany, have observed a steep increase of notified autochthonous hepatitis E cases in recent years. Our study investigated time trends in HEV seroprevalence in southern Germany between 2003 and 2015. A total of 3000 study sera were evenly distributed over sampling years 2003, 2006, 2009...

A novel European H5N8 influenza A virus has increased virulence in ducks but low zoonotic potential

We investigated in a unique setup of animal models and a human lung explant culture biological properties, including zoonotic potential, of a representative 2016 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N8, clade 2.3.4.4 group B (H5N8B), that spread rapidly in a huge and ongoing outbreak series in Europe and caused high mortality in waterfowl and domestic birds. HPAIV...

Zika convalescent macaques display delayed induction of anamnestic cross-neutralizing antibody responses after dengue infection

Structural similarities between Zika (ZIKV) and dengue virus (DENV) leads to the induction of cross-reactive responses. We have previously demonstrated that ZIKV exposed macaques significantly enhance DENV viremia. Here we show that this enhancement of DENV infection occurred in the presence of high levels of DENV cross-reactive IgG1 subclass of binding antibodies (bAb) with low...

Yellow fever in the diagnostics laboratory

Yellow fever (YF) remains a public health issue in endemic areas despite the availability of a safe and effective vaccine. In 2015–2016, urban outbreaks of YF were declared in Angola and the Democratic Republic of Congo, and a sylvatic outbreak has been ongoing in Brazil since December 2016. Of great concern is the risk of urban transmission cycles taking hold in Brazil and the...

LtpA, a CdnL-type CarD regulator, is important for the enzootic cycle of the Lyme disease pathogen

Little is known about how Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease pathogen, adapts and survives in the tick vector. We previously identified a bacterial CarD N-terminal-like (CdnL) protein, LtpA (BB0355), in B. burgdorferi that is preferably expressed at lower temperatures, which is a surrogate condition mimicking the tick portion of the enzootic cycle of B. burgdorferi. CdnL...

Long-term HEV carriers without antibody seroconversion among eligible immunocompetent blood donors

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is emerging as a potential threat to the safety of blood transfusions. In many countries and regions endemic for HEV, such as China, blood donors are not routinely tested for HEV infection. In this study, 11747 eligible blood donors were screened for anti-HEV immunoglobulin M (IgM)/immunoglobulin G (IgG) and HEV RNA and antigen in China. Twenty-four donors...

Xapuri virus, a novel mammarenavirus: natural reassortment and increased diversity between New World viruses

Mammarenavirus RNA was detected in Musser’s bristly mouse (Neacomys musseri) from the Amazon region, and this detection indicated that rodents were infected with a novel mammarenavirus, with the proposed name Xapuri virus (XAPV), which is phylogenetically related to New World Clade B and Clade C viruses. XAPV may represent the first natural reassortment of the Arenaviridae family...

Diagnostic accuracy evaluation of the conventional and molecular tests for Spinal Tuberculosis in a cohort, head-to-head study

Early diagnosis of spinal tuberculosis (TB) is hampered by the flaws of conventional tests. The aim of this study was to assess the value of new and existing molecular tests in a prospective, head-to-head cohort study. Specimens were consecutively collected from spinal TB suspects in four hospitals in Beijing, China. Smear, culture, histopathology, Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert), and...

Patient-derived avian influenza A (H5N6) virus is highly pathogenic in mice but can be effectively treated by anti-influenza polyclonal antibodies

Highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N6) virus has been circulating in poultry since 2013 and causes sporadic infections and fatalities in humans. Due to the re-occurrence and continuous evolution of this virus subtype, there is an urgent need to better understand the pathogenicity of the H5N6 virus and to identify effective preventative and therapeutic strategies. We...

An adenovirus serotype 2-vectored ebolavirus vaccine generates robust antibody and cell-mediated immune responses in mice and rhesus macaques

Ebolavirus vaccines based on several adenoviral vectors have been investigated in preclinical studies and clinical trials. The use of adenovirus serotype 2 as a vector for ebolavirus vaccine has not been reported. Herein, we generated rAd2-ZGP, a recombinant replication-incompetent adenovirus serotype 2 expressing codon-optimized Zaire ebolavirus glycoprotein, and evaluated its...

A cross-sectional seroepidemiology study of EV-D68 in China

Enterovirus 68 (EV-D68) is associated with respiratory diseases, such as acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs), pneumonia, neurological diseases, and acute flaccid myelitis (AFM). In recent years, there have been global outbreaks of EV-D68 epidemics. However, there is no effective vaccine against EV-D68, and the understanding...

A novel tick-borne phlebovirus, closely related to severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus and Heartland virus, is a potential pathogen

Tick-borne viral diseases have attracted much attention in recent years because of their increasing incidence and threat to human health. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome phlebovirus (SFTSV) and Heartland virus (HRTV) were recently identified as tick-borne phleboviruses (TBPVs) in Asia and the United States, respectively, and are associated with severe human diseases...

A virus-like particle-based tetravalent vaccine for hand, foot, and mouth disease elicits broad and balanced protective immunity

Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is an infectious disease that mainly affects infants and children, causing considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. HFMD is commonly caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackieviruses A16 (CVA16), A6 (CVA6), and A10 (CVA10). Formalin-inactivated EV71 vaccines are currently available in China; however, these vaccines fail to confer...

Prospective surveillance for influenza A virus in Chinese swine farms

Pork production in China is rapidly increasing and swine production operations are expanding in size and number. However, the biosecurity measures necessary to prevent swine disease transmission, particularly influenza A viruses (IAV) that can be zoonotic, are often inadequate. Despite this risk, few studies have attempted to comprehensively study IAV ecology in swine production...

Novel triple-reassortant influenza viruses in pigs, Guangxi, China

Considered a “mixing vessel” for influenza viruses, pigs can give rise to new influenza virus reassortants that can threaten humans. During our surveillance of pigs in Guangxi, China from 2013 to 2015, we isolated 11 H1N1 and three H3N2 influenza A viruses of swine origin (IAVs-S). Out of the 14, we detected ten novel triple-reassortant viruses, which contained surface genes...

RBM24 stabilizes hepatitis B virus pregenomic RNA but inhibits core protein translation by targeting the terminal redundancy sequence

The terminal redundancy (TR) sequence of the 3.5-kb hepatitis B virus (HBV) RNA contains sites that govern many crucial functions in the viral life cycle, including polyadenylation, translation, RNA packaging, and DNA synthesis. In the present study, RNA-binding motif protein 24 (RBM24) is shown to be involved in the modulation of HBV replication by targeting the TR of HBV RNA...

Re-visiting the evolution, dispersal and epidemiology of Zika virus in Asia

Based on serological evidence and viral isolation, Zika virus (ZIKV) has circulated for many years relatively benignly in a sylvatic cycle in Africa and an urban cycle in South East Asia (SEA). With the recent availability of limited but novel Indian ZIKV sequences to add to the plethora of SEA sequences, we traced the phylogenetic history and spatio-temporal dispersal pattern of...