The Scientific World Journal

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/

List of Papers (Total 8,144)

Best Management Practices for Minimizing Nitrate Leaching from Container-Grown Nurseries

Containerized plant production represents an extremely intensive agricultural practice; 40,000 to 300,000 containers may occupy one acre of surface area to which a large amount of chemical fertilizer is applied. Currently, recommended fertilizer application rates for the production of containerized nursery ornamental plants are in excess of plant requirements, and up to 50% of...

Prediction of Nitrogen Responses of Corn by Soil Nitrogen Mineralization Indicators

Soil nitrogen mineralization potential (Nmin) has to be spatially quantified to enable farmers to vary N fertilizer rates, optimize crop yields, and minimize N transfer from soils to the environment. The study objectives were to assess the spatial variability in soil Nmin potential based on clay and organic matter (OM) contents and the impact of grouping soils using these...

Water Table Management Reduces Tile Nitrate Loss in Continuous Corn and in a Soybean-Corn Rotation

Water table management systems can be designed to alleviate soil water excesses and deficits, as well as reduce nitrate leaching losses in tile discharge. With this in mind, a standard tile drainage (DR) system was compared over 8 years (1991 to 1999) to a controlled tile drainage/subirrigation (CDS) system on a low-slope (0.05 to 0.1%) Brookston clay loam soil (Typic Argiaquoll...

Identification of Molecular Substrate for the Attenuation of Anxiety: A Step Toward the Development of Better Anti-Anxiety Drugs

Anxiety disorders affect some 19 million people in the U.S. alone, costing $46.6 billion, or one third of the nation’s total mental health bill in 1990. Benzodiazepine tranquilizers like the prototypic diazepam are among the most widely used anti-anxiety agents. In addition to their anxiolytic action, they also induce sedation and may impair motor coordination, both of which are...

An Innovative Approach for Locating and Evaluating Subsurface Pathways for Nitrogen Loss

Fundamental watershed-scale processes governing chemical flux to neighboring ecosystems are so poorly understood that effective strategies for mitigating chemical contamination cannot be formulated. Characterization of evapotranspiration, surface runoff, plant uptake, subsurface preferential flow, behavior of the chemicals in neighboring ecosystems, and an understanding of how...

Nitrogen Deposition to and Cycling in a Deciduous Forest

The project described here seeks to answer questions regarding the role increased nitrogen (N) deposition is playing in enhanced carbon (C) sequestration in temperate mid-latitude forests, using detailed measurements from an AmeriFlux tower in southern Indiana (Morgan-Monroe State Forest, or MMSF). The measurements indicate an average atmosphere-surface N flux of approximately 6...

The Dynamics of Nitrous Oxide Emission from the Use of Mineral Fertilizers in Russia

The intensity of nitrous oxide (N2O) emission was considered based on literature data on the single input of mineral N (nitrogen) fertilizers into different agricultural soil types in Russia. Ambient environmental factors exert a combined effect on the process of gaseous nitrogen formation from fertilizers applied. To reduce the uncertainty of estimates as much as possible, only...

Maryland Power Plant Cooling-Water Intake Regulations and their Application in Evaluation of Adverse Environmental Impact

Maryland’s cooling-water intake and discharge regulations, the Code of Maryland Regulations (COMAR) 26.08.03, stem from Sections 316(a) and (b) of the Clean Water Act (CWA). COMAR 26.08.03.05 and litigative and administrative rulings stipulate that the location, design, construction, and capability of cooling-water intake structures must reflect the best technology available (BTA...

Proposed Methods and Endpoints for Defining and Assessing Adverse Environmental Impact (AEI) on Fish Communities/Populations in Tennessee River Reservoirs

Two multimetric indices have been developed to help address fish community (reservoir fish assemblage index [RFAI]) and individual population quality (sport fishing index [SFI]) in Tennessee River reservoirs. The RFAI, with characteristics similar to the index of biotic integrity (IBI) used in stream fish community determinations, was developed to monitor the existing condition...

Polar Organic Pollutants in Groundwater: Experimental Approaches to Biodegradation During Subsoil Passage

A selection of polar organic compounds was investigated for their biodegradation on a laboratory scale fixed-bed bioreactor and the decline of the parent compounds besides the formation of metabolites was monitored. Of particular interest was the investigation into the degradation of pesticides, especially isoproturon (IPU), surfactants and industrial by-products of chemical...

Chemical Analysis, Distributed Modelling and Risk Indices. Three Fundamental Pillars in Risk Assessment

The Risk Assessment (RA) of pollutants from contaminated sites and landfills is a major environmental issue in Europe, due to the large number of sites and to the importance of groundwater protection. The high number of contaminants and the lack of knowledge of their environmental properties and their ecotoxicological and toxicological characteristics complicate the problem...

Homogenization of Mammalian Tissues

Satisfactory homogenization of a tissue is a necessary prerequisite to any fractionation schedule. A detailed protocol is given for rat liver because of the widespread use of this tissue. Although this technique should be broadly applicable to any soft tissue and to any subsequent fractionation procedure, there are certain tissues and applications that require either minor or...

Cell Cycle Dynamics of the Nuclear Envelope

The nuclear envelope (NE) consists of an inner and an outer membrane, nuclear pore complexes, and the underlying nuclear lamina, a filamentous scaffold structure formed by lamins. The inner membrane is linked to the lamina and chromatin by its integral membrane proteins, such as lamin B receptor (LBR), emerin, and various isoforms of lamina-associated polypeptides (LAP) 1 and 2...

Apoptosis Gene Hunting Using Retroviral Expression Cloning: Identification of Vacuolar ATPase Subunit E

Over the past 10-15 years there has been an explosion of interest in apoptosis. The delayed realisation that cell death is an essential part of life for any multicellular organism has meant that, despite the recent and rapid developments of the last decade, the precise biochemical pathways involved in apoptosis remain incomplete and potentially novel genes may, as yet, remain...

Stable Isotope Food Web Analysis of a Large Subtropical Lake: Alternative Explanations for 15N Enrichment of Pelagic vs. Littoral Fisheries

The food webs of littoral, pelagic, and littoral-pelagic ecotone (interface) regions of a large subtropical lake were investigated using stable isotope ratio methods, expanding the focus of a previous fish-only study to include other food web components such as primary producers and invertebrates. In these food webs, δ13C increased ~4o/oo and δ15N increased ~10o/oo from primary...

Measurement of Quality of Life VI. Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALY) is an Unfortunate Use of the Quality-of-Life Concept

The QALY (quality-adjusted life years) attempts to incorporate the dimension of quality of life into the evaluation by adjusting life years by a quality factor. In practice, this is based on discussing with people the progression of a number of hypothetical illnesses and their ensuing side effects. From this information, the person assesses how each state of health described...

Urethral Foreign Body Management: A Case Report

The management of urethral foreign bodies may require the use of various surgical techniques in a urologist's armamentarium. We report a unique case of a urethral foreign body requiring percutaneous and endoscopic techniques for removal.

Clinical Remission of Chronic Refractory Pelvic Symptoms in Three Men

We report on three American men with chronic refractory pelvic pain, urinary symptoms, and sexual dysfunction who traveled to the Philippines for treatment. In the Manila Genitourinary Clinic, the patients were treated with microbial diagnosis, antimicrobial therapy, and 19, 27, and 21 prostatic massages respectively. All three patients underwent resolution of symptoms.

Physical Fitness and Functional Ability of Children with Intellectual Disability: Effects of a Short-Term Daily Treadmill Intervention

Persons with intellectual disability (ID) and associated multiple disabilities have been found by many researchers to be a population with deficient physical fitness measures, which can be explained by an inactive lifestyle, a result of lack of awareness of the positive physical effects of physical exercise, or lack of motivation for any motor activity. Various plans for physical...