Acta Neuropathologica

http://link.springer.com/journal/401

List of Papers (Total 540)

Vitamin D increases glucocorticoid efficacy via inhibition of mTORC1 in experimental models of multiple sclerosis

The limited efficacy of glucocorticoids (GCs) during therapy of acute relapses in multiple sclerosis (MS) leads to long-term disability. We investigated the potential of vitamin D (VD) to enhance GC efficacy and the mechanisms underlying this VD/GC interaction. In vitro, GC receptor (GR) expression levels were quantified by ELISA and induction of T cell apoptosis served as a...

Galectin-3, a novel endogenous TREM2 ligand, detrimentally regulates inflammatory response in Alzheimer’s disease

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease in which the formation of extracellular aggregates of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide, fibrillary tangles of intraneuronal tau and microglial activation are major pathological hallmarks. One of the key molecules involved in microglial activation is galectin-3 (gal3), and we demonstrate here for the first time a key...

The new genetic landscape of Alzheimer’s disease: from amyloid cascade to genetically driven synaptic failure hypothesis?

A strong genetic predisposition (60–80% of attributable risk) is present in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In view of this major genetic component, identification of the genetic risk factors has been a major objective in the AD field with the ultimate aim to better understand the pathological processes. In this review, we present how the genetic risk factors are involved in APP...

Binding of α-synuclein oligomers to Cx32 facilitates protein uptake and transfer in neurons and oligodendrocytes

The intercellular transfer of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) has been implicated in the progression of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA). The cellular mechanisms underlying this process are now beginning to be elucidated. In this study, we demonstrate that the gap junction protein connexin-32 (Cx32) is centrally involved in the preferential uptake of α-syn...

LRRK2 modifies α-syn pathology and spread in mouse models and human neurons

Progressive aggregation of the protein alpha-synuclein (α-syn) and loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) are key histopathological hallmarks of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Accruing evidence suggests that α-syn pathology can propagate through neuronal circuits in the brain, contributing to the progressive nature of the disease. Thus, it is...

Ketogenic diet ameliorates axonal defects and promotes myelination in Pelizaeus–Merzbacher disease

Pelizaeus–Merzbacher disease (PMD) is an untreatable and fatal leukodystrophy. In a model of PMD with perturbed blood–brain barrier integrity, cholesterol supplementation promotes myelin membrane growth. Here, we show that in contrast to the mouse model, dietary cholesterol in two PMD patients did not lead to a major advancement of hypomyelination, potentially because the intact...

The role of ABCA7 in Alzheimer’s disease: evidence from genomics, transcriptomics and methylomics

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) originally identified ATP-binding cassette, sub-family A, member 7 (ABCA7), as a novel risk gene of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Since then, accumulating evidence from in vitro, in vivo, and human-based studies has corroborated and extended this association, promoting ABCA7 as one of the most important risk genes of both early-onset and late...

Alpha-synuclein suppresses mitochondrial protease ClpP to trigger mitochondrial oxidative damage and neurotoxicity

Both α-Synuclein (αSyn) accumulation and mitochondrial dysfunction have been implicated in the pathology of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Although studies suggest that αSyn and its missense mutant, A53T, preferentially accumulate in the mitochondria, the mechanisms by which αSyn and mitochondrial proteins regulate each other to trigger mitochondrial and neuronal toxicity are poorly...

Caspase-4 mediates cytoplasmic accumulation of TDP-43 in the primate brains

The cytoplasmic accumulation of the nuclear TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is a pathologic hallmark in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, and other neurological disorders. However, most transgenic TDP-43 rodent models show predominant nuclear distribution of TDP-43 in the brain. By expressing mutant TDP-43 (M337V) in the brains of rhesus...

Naturally occurring antibodies isolated from PD patients inhibit synuclein seeding in vitro and recognize Lewy pathology

Deposition of α-synuclein into Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites is the hallmark of Parkinson’s disease (PD). It is hypothesized that α-synuclein pathology spreads by a “prion-like” mechanism (i.e., by seeded aggregation or templated misfolding). Therefore, various extracellular α-synuclein conformers and/or posttranslational modifications may serve as biomarkers of disease or...

Tau drives translational selectivity by interacting with ribosomal proteins

There is a fundamental gap in understanding the consequences of tau–ribosome interactions. Tau oligomers and filaments hinder protein synthesis in vitro, and they associate strongly with ribosomes in vivo. Here, we investigated the consequences of tau interactions with ribosomes in transgenic mice, in cells, and in human brain tissues to identify tau as a direct modulator of...

Retinal α-synuclein deposits in Parkinson’s disease patients and animal models

Despite decades of research, accurate diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease remains a challenge, and disease-modifying treatments are still lacking. Research into the early (presymptomatic) stages of Parkinson’s disease and the discovery of novel biomarkers is of utmost importance to reduce this burden and to come to a more accurate diagnosis at the very onset of the disease. Many...

Wide distribution of alpha-synuclein oligomers in multiple system atrophy brain detected by proximity ligation

Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a fatal adult-onset neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by varying degrees of cerebellar dysfunction and Parkinsonism. The neuropathological hallmark of MSA is alpha-synuclein (AS)-positive glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs). Although severe neuronal loss (NL) is also observed in MSA, neuronal inclusions (NIs) are rare compared to...

Aggregated Tau activates NLRP3–ASC inflammasome exacerbating exogenously seeded and non-exogenously seeded Tau pathology in vivo

Brains of Alzheimer’s disease patients are characterized by the presence of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, both invariably associated with neuroinflammation. A crucial role for NLRP3–ASC inflammasome [NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3)–Apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC)] in amyloid-beta (Aβ)-induced microgliosis and...

Disrupted neuronal trafficking in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive, adult-onset neurodegenerative disease caused by degeneration of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord leading to muscle weakness. Median survival after symptom onset in patients is 3–5 years and no effective therapies are available to treat or cure ALS. Therefore, further insight is needed into the molecular and cellular...

Microglial nodules provide the environment for pathogenic T cells in human encephalitis

Microglia nodule formation is a common feature in inflammatory brain diseases mediated by T lymphocytes such as viral and paraneoplastic encephalitis, multiple sclerosis, and Rasmussen encephalitis (RE). However, its role has not been fully understood yet. We hypothesized that, in RE, microglial nodules provide an environment for the initiation of the later dominating T-cell...

C9orf72 arginine-rich dipeptide proteins interact with ribosomal proteins in vivo to induce a toxic translational arrest that is rescued by eIF1A

A GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeat expansion within the C9orf72 gene is the most common genetic cause of both amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. Sense and antisense repeat-containing transcripts undergo repeat-associated non-AUG-initiated translation to produce five dipeptide proteins (DPRs). The polyGR and polyPR DPRs are extremely toxic when expressed in...

Circulating AQP4-specific auto-antibodies alone can induce neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder in the rat

It is well established that the binding of pathogenic aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-specific autoantibodies to astrocytes may initiate a cascade of events culminating in the destruction of these cells and in the formation of large tissue-destructive lesions typical for patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD). To date, not a single experimental study has shown that the...

Novel tau fragments in cerebrospinal fluid: relation to tangle pathology and cognitive decline in Alzheimer’s disease

Tau is an axonal microtubule-binding protein. Tau pathology in brain and increased tau concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Most of tau in CSF is present as fragments. We immunoprecipitated tau from CSF and identified several endogenous peptides ending at amino acid (aa) 123 or 224 using high-resolution mass spectrometry. We...

Post-stroke inflammation—target or tool for therapy?

Inflammation is currently considered a prime target for the development of new stroke therapies. In the acute phase of ischemic stroke, microglia are activated and then circulating immune cells invade the peri-infarct and infarct core. Resident and infiltrating cells together orchestrate the post-stroke inflammatory response, communicating with each other and the ischemic neurons...

Questions concerning the role of amyloid-β in the definition, aetiology and diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease

The dominant hypothesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) aetiology, the neuropathological guidelines for diagnosing AD and the majority of high-profile therapeutic efforts, in both research and in clinical practice, have been built around one possible causal factor, amyloid-β (Aβ). However, the causal link between Aβ and AD remains unproven. Here, in the context of a detailed...

Rapid lymphatic efflux limits cerebrospinal fluid flow to the brain

The relationships between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain interstitial fluid are still being elucidated. It has been proposed that CSF within the subarachnoid space will enter paravascular spaces along arteries to flush through the parenchyma of the brain. However, CSF also directly exits the subarachnoid space through the cribriform plate and other perineural routes to reach...