Nature Communications

http://www.nature.com/ncomms

List of Papers (Total 10,232)

Macrophage achieves self-protection against oxidative stress-induced ageing through the Mst-Nrf2 axis

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in phagocytes is a major defense mechanism against pathogens. However, the cellular self-protective mechanism against such potential damage from oxidative stress remains unclear. Here we show that the kinases Mst1 and Mst2 (Mst1/2) sense ROS and maintain cellular redox balance by modulating the stability of antioxidant transcription factor...

Loss of BCL9/9l suppresses Wnt driven tumourigenesis in models that recapitulate human cancer

Different thresholds of Wnt signalling are thought to drive stem cell maintenance, regeneration, differentiation and cancer. However, the principle that oncogenic Wnt signalling could be specifically targeted remains controversial. Here we examine the requirement of BCL9/9l, constituents of the Wnt-enhanceosome, for intestinal transformation following loss of the tumour...

Redox gated polymer memristive processing memory unit

Memristors with enormous storage capacity and superior processing efficiency are of critical importance to overcome the Moore’s Law limitation and von Neumann bottleneck problems in the big data and artificial intelligence era. In particular, the integration of multifunctionalities into a single memristor promises an essential strategy of obtaining a high-performance electronic...

Inhibition of upper small intestinal mTOR lowers plasma glucose levels by inhibiting glucose production

Glucose homeostasis is partly controlled by the energy sensor mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) in the muscle and liver. However, whether mTOR in the small intestine affects glucose homeostasis in vivo remains unknown. Here, we first report that delivery of rapamycin or an adenovirus encoding the dominant negative acting mTOR-mutated protein into the upper small intestine is...

Structural basis of ECF-σ-factor-dependent transcription initiation

Extracytoplasmic (ECF) σ factors, the largest class of alternative σ factors, are related to primary σ factors, but have simpler structures, comprising only two of six conserved functional modules in primary σ factors: region 2 (σR2) and region 4 (σR4). Here, we report crystal structures of transcription initiation complexes containing Mycobacterium tuberculosis RNA polymerase...

Costimulation of type-2 innate lymphoid cells by GITR promotes effector function and ameliorates type 2 diabetes

Metabolic syndrome is characterized by disturbances in glucose homeostasis and the development of low-grade systemic inflammation, which increase the risk to develop type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Type-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are a recently discovered immune population secreting Th2 cytokines. While previous studies show how ILC2s can play a critical role in the...

Correspondence between cerebral glucose metabolism and BOLD reveals relative power and cost in human brain

The correspondence between cerebral glucose metabolism (indexing energy utilization) and synchronous fluctuations in blood oxygenation (indexing neuronal activity) is relevant for neuronal specialization and is affected by brain disorders. Here, we define novel measures of relative power (rPWR, extent of concurrent energy utilization and activity) and relative cost (rCST, extent...

A cell cycle-coordinated Polymerase II transcription compartment encompasses gene expression before global genome activation

Most metazoan embryos commence development with rapid, transcriptionally silent cell divisions, with genome activation delayed until the mid-blastula transition (MBT). However, a set of genes escapes global repression and gets activated before MBT. Here we describe the formation and the spatio-temporal dynamics of a pair of distinct transcription compartments, which encompasses...

Single-cell analysis reveals fibroblast heterogeneity and myeloid-derived adipocyte progenitors in murine skin wounds

During wound healing in adult mouse skin, hair follicles and then adipocytes regenerate. Adipocytes regenerate from myofibroblasts, a specialized contractile wound fibroblast. Here we study wound fibroblast diversity using single-cell RNA-sequencing. On analysis, wound fibroblasts group into twelve clusters. Pseudotime and RNA velocity analyses reveal that some clusters likely...

Population-wide analysis of differences in disease progression patterns in men and women

Sex-stratified medicine is a fundamentally important, yet understudied, facet of modern medical care. A data-driven model for how to systematically analyze population-wide, longitudinal differences in hospital admissions between men and women is needed. Here, we demonstrate a systematic analysis of all diseases and disease co-occurrences in the complete Danish population using...

Ecosystem structural changes controlled by altered rainfall climatology in tropical savannas

Tropical savannas comprise mixed woodland grassland ecosystems in which trees and grasses compete for water resources thereby maintaining the spatial structuring of this ecosystem. A global change in rainfall climatology may impact the structure of tropical savanna ecosystems by favouring woody plants, relative to herbaceous vegetation. Here we analysed satellite data and...

Functional genomics reveal gene regulatory mechanisms underlying schizophrenia risk

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified over 180 independent schizophrenia risk loci. Nevertheless, how the risk variants in the reported loci confer schizophrenia susceptibility remains largely unknown. Here we systematically investigate the gene regulatory mechanisms underpinning schizophrenia risk through integrating data from functional genomics (including 30...

Recent increases in tropical cyclone intensification rates

Tropical cyclones that rapidly intensify are typically associated with the highest forecast errors and cause a disproportionate amount of human and financial losses. Therefore, it is crucial to understand if, and why, there are observed upward trends in tropical cyclone intensification rates. Here, we utilize two observational datasets to calculate 24-hour wind speed changes over...

Collateral sensitivity constrains resistance evolution of the CTX-M-15 β-lactamase

Antibiotic resistance is a major challenge to global public health. Discovery of new antibiotics is slow and to ensure proper treatment of bacterial infections new strategies are needed. One way to curb the development of antibiotic resistance is to design drug combinations where the development of resistance against one drug leads to collateral sensitivity to the other drug...

Targets of complement-fixing antibodies in protective immunity against malaria in children

Antibodies against P. falciparum merozoites fix complement to inhibit blood-stage replication in naturally-acquired and vaccine-induced immunity; however, specific targets of these functional antibodies and their importance in protective immunity are unknown. Among malaria-exposed individuals, we show that complement-fixing antibodies to merozoites are more strongly correlated...

Hidden structural and chemical order controls lithium transport in cation-disordered oxides for rechargeable batteries

Structure plays a vital role in determining materials properties. In lithium ion cathode materials, the crystal structure defines the dimensionality and connectivity of interstitial sites, thus determining lithium ion diffusion kinetics. In most conventional cathode materials that are well-ordered, the average structure as seen in diffraction dictates the lithium ion diffusion...

Merging transformation optics with electron-driven photon sources

Relativistic electron beams create optical radiation when interacting with tailored nanostructures. This phenomenon has been so far used to design grating-based and holographic electron-driven photon sources. It has been proposed recently that such sources can be used for hybrid electron- and light-based spectroscopy techniques. However, this demands the design of a thin-film...

−60 °C solution synthesis of atomically dispersed cobalt electrocatalyst with superior performance

Temperature can govern morphologies, structures and properties of products from synthesis in solution. A reaction in solution at low temperature may result in different materials than at higher temperature due to thermodynamics and kinetics of nuclei formation. Here, we report a low-temperature solution synthesis of atomically dispersed cobalt in a catalyst with superior...

Non-equilibrium crystallization pathways of manganese oxides in aqueous solution

Aqueous precipitation of transition metal oxides often proceeds through non-equilibrium phases, whose appearance cannot be anticipated from traditional phase diagrams. Without a precise understanding of which metastable phases form, or their lifetimes, targeted synthesis of specific metal oxides can become a trial-and-error process. Here, we construct a theoretical framework to...

Virus-specific memory T cells populate tumors and can be repurposed for tumor immunotherapy

The immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment limits the success of current immunotherapies. The host retains memory T cells specific for previous infections throughout the entire body that are capable of executing potent and immediate immunostimulatory functions. Here we show that virus-specific memory T cells extend their surveillance to mouse and human tumors. Reactivating...

Capturing chemical intuition in synthesis of metal-organic frameworks

We report a methodology using machine learning to capture chemical intuition from a set of (partially) failed attempts to synthesize a metal-organic framework. We define chemical intuition as the collection of unwritten guidelines used by synthetic chemists to find the right synthesis conditions. As (partially) failed experiments usually remain unreported, we have reconstructed a...

Enhanced flexoelectricity at reduced dimensions revealed by mechanically tunable quantum tunnelling

Flexoelectricity is a universal electromechanical coupling effect whereby all dielectric materials polarise in response to strain gradients. In particular, nanoscale flexoelectricity promises exotic phenomena and functions, but reliable characterisation methods are required to unlock its potential. Here, we report anomalous mechanical control of quantum tunnelling that allows for...

Patterns of genetic differentiation and the footprints of historical migrations in the Iberian Peninsula

The Iberian Peninsula is linguistically diverse and has a complex demographic history, including a centuries-long period of Muslim rule. Here, we study the fine-scale genetic structure of its population, and the genetic impacts of historical events, leveraging powerful, haplotype-based statistical methods to analyse 1413 individuals from across Spain. We detect extensive fine...

A number-based inventory of size-resolved black carbon particle emissions by global civil aviation

With the rapidly growing global air traffic, the impacts of the black carbon (BC) in the aviation exhaust on climate, environment and public health are likely rising. The particle number and size distribution are crucial metrics for toxicological analysis and aerosol-cloud interactions. Here, a size-resolved BC particle number emission inventory was developed for the global civil...